Effects of Vitamin D in the Prevention of Acute Viral Bronchiolitis: Systematic Review
Aims: Published evidence suggests that Vitamin D supplementation may have a protective effect on infectious disease of the lower respiratory tract. The objective of this review was to critically appraise the effects of vitamin D intake in the prevention of acute viral bronchiolitis in children.
Methods: We searched the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, LILACS, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, until December 2014. Keywords: "Vitamin D" OR cholecalciferol OR ergocalciferol AND "bronchiolitis, viral" OR bronchiolitides, viral OR "bronchiolitides viral". Eligibility Criteria: We included studies evaluating the effect of vitamin D intake in the prevention of acute viral bronchiolitis in young children. Studies with less than two weeks of intervention and review articles were excluded.
Results: The search identified 241 articles; twenty were selected for full reading but only two were included in the systematic review, comprising 296 children. No study measured serum vitamin D. One of them was a clinical trial, where the number of episodes of acute viral bronchiolitis was significantly lower in children supplemented with vitamin D (Group I: mean: 0.6 ± 0.7 Group II: mean: 1.4 ± 0.9; p = 0.001). The other, a case-control study, did not find a significant relationship between the occurrence of acute viral bronchiolitis cases and the intake of vitamin D (OR 1.7 95% CI 0.7 to 4.0).
Conclusions: Current scientific evidence is insufficient to prove clinical benefits of vitamin D in preventing acute viral bronchiolitis.
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