Frequency of spirometric changes, air trapping, and lung hyperinflation in children and adolescents with therapy-resistant severe asthma
A pilot study
Aims: to assess the frequency of spirometric and plethysmographic changes in children and adolescents with severe therapy-resistant asthma (SRTA). In addition, possible associations between these outcome were tested.
Methods: this is a retrospective study. Children and adolescents (6-18 years old), diagnosed with SRTA and who were in regular outpatient follow-up were included. Everyone should have anthropometric (weight, height, body mass index), demographic (age, ethnicity and gender), clinical (skin test, asthma control test, family smoking and medications in use) and pulmonary function (spirometry and body plethysmography) recorded in the service's database. Pulmonary function tests followed the recommendations of national and international guidelines. For statistical purposes, descriptive analysis and Pearson's chi-square test were used.
Results: from a total of 15 patients with SRTA, 12 of them were included in the sample. The average age was 12.2 years, with a predominance of females (66.7%). Of these, 50.0% had the disease under control, 83.3% were considered atopic, and 50.0% had a family history of smoking. Regarding the pulmonary function tests (% of predicted), the means of spirometric parameters and body plestismography were within the lower limits of normality. Only 16.7% of the sample had altered spirometry (<5th percentile), 25.0% air trapping (residual volume>130.0%) and 16.7% pulmonary hyperinflation (total lung capacity>120.0%). There was a statistically higher frequency (p=0.045) of air trapping in participants with altered spirometry, compared to normal spirometry. However, there was no difference (p=0.341) in relation to pulmonary hyperinflation.
Conclusions: the findings demonstrated little impairment of spirometry and lung volumes and capacities in children and adolescents with AGRT. In addition, those participants with altered spirometry had a higher frequency of air trapping in the body plethysmography exam.
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