Inadequate food intake in elderly: drug-nutrient interaction
Aims: to evaluate the inadequacy of food consumption and the estimated nutrient depletion caused by the use of drugs in the elderly.
Methods: a cross-sectional population study, attended by 427 elderly. Food consumption was obtained from the 24-hour Food Recall Survey and the Research Dietetic History. The use of drugs was assessed by a pharmacotherapeutic questionnaire.
Results: 85.8% of elderly use medications, the most prevalent inhibitors angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (29.2%), acetylsalicylic acid (28.7%), hydrochlorothiazide (24.4%), hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase enzyme inhibitor (17.0%), calcium carbonate (12.6%) and proton pump inhibitors (8.2%). Acetylsalicylic acid, hydrochlorothiazide and proton pump inhibitors are the drugs that possibly deplete the greatest number of nutrients. Users of hydroxymethyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase enzyme inhibitor, 97% could had inadequate for vitamin E; of potassium-sparing diuretics, 90.0% of inadequacy for magnesium; digoxin, 83.3% of inadequate for magnesium and 58.3% for calcium and potassium.
Conclusions: the drugs most commonly used by elderly are responsible for the depletion of numerous micronutrients, often associated with a high prevalence of inadequate consumption, which may cause possible nutritional deficiencies.
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