Anthropometric measurements in elderly assisted in primary health care and their association with gender, age and frailty syndrome: EMI-SUS data

  • Vera Elizabeth Closs Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
  • Laura Schlatter Rosemberg Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
  • Betina Gama Ettrich Á época do estudo, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
  • Irenio Gomes Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
  • Carla Helena Augustin Schwanke Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Keywords: anthropometry, frail elderly, primary health care.


Aims: To describe anthropometric measurements and analyze their association with gender, age, and frailty syndrome in elderly assisted in primary health care.

Methods: This cross-sectional study is part of the Multidimensional Study of the Elderly in the Family Health Strategy in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil (EMI-SUS). Twenty-seven anthropometric measurements (analyzed in isolation or in equations, totaling 41 measurements) and data for determining the frailty (Fried Phenotype) were collected from elderly individuals. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Student t test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for statistical analysis, considering a confidence level of 95%.

Results: The sample included 583 elderly, of whom 371 (63.6%) were women. Men presented significantly higher means for weight, height, knee-height; forearm, muscle arm, neck and wrist circumferences; muscle armarea; ratios for waist-to-hip, waist-to-thigh, and trunk-to-skinfolds-extremities; and sagittal and conicity indexes. Women showed higher means for body mass index; arm, waist, thigh and hip circumferences; biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, pectoral, thigh, calf, and mean of six skinfolds; fat arm area, waist-to-height ratio and sagittal abdominal diameter-to-height ratio. The younger elderly presented higher measures of forearm, arm, muscle arm and thigh circumferences; and muscle arm area, in relation to the older. The robust elderly had higher measures of height, knee-height, muscle arm circumference and muscle arm area; and lower fat arm area, thigh, pectoral, biceps, triceps and calf skinfolds; and sagittal abdominal diameter-to-height ratio, than the pre-frail and frail seniors. The frail elderly had lower calf and forearm circumferences than the robust elderly, and higher waist-to-height, waist-to-thigh and waist-to-calf ratios, and conicity and sagittal indexes.

Conclusions: Anthropometric measures were associated with gender, age and frailty. In men, the mean measures of size, build and muscle mass reserve were higher. In women, the mean measures of fat reserve were higher and the association of the measures with age group was more frequent. Frailty proved to be associated with muscle mass loss. The frail elderly had lower measures of size and complexion.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Vera Elizabeth Closs, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Nutricionista, mestre em Gerontologia Biomédica, doutoranda do Programa de Pós-graduação em Gerontologia Biomédica do Instituto de Geriatria e Gerontologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (IGG-PUCRS), Porto Alegre/RS – Brasil.
Laura Schlatter Rosemberg, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Nutricionista, mestre em Gerontologia Biomédica, doutoranda do Programa de Pós-graduação em Gerontologia Biomédica do Instituto de Geriatria e Gerontologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (IGG-PUCRS), Porto Alegre/RS – Brasil.
Betina Gama Ettrich, Á época do estudo, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul.
Nutricionista, mestre em Cardiologia e Ciências Cardiovasculares, Porto Alegre/RS – Brasil.
Irenio Gomes, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Médico neurologista, doutor em Medicina, professor adjunto do Programa de Pós-graduação em Gerontologia Biomédica do Instituto de Geriatria e Gerontologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (IGG-PUCRS), Porto Alegre/RS – Brasil.
Carla Helena Augustin Schwanke, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul.
Médica geriatra, doutora em Gerontologia Biomédica, professora adjunta do Programa de Pós-graduação em Gerontologia Biomédica do Instituto de Geriatria e Gerontologia da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (IGG-PUCRS), Porto Alegre/RS – Brasil. 

Av. Ipiranga, 6681 – Prédio 81, 7º andar, sala 703.10

CEP: 90619-900, Porto Alegre - RS - Brasil.

Fone: +55-51-33536031


Perissinotto E, Pisent C, Sergi G, Grigoletto F, Enzi G. Anthropometric measurements in the elderly: age and gender differences. Br J Nutr. 2002;87(02):177-86.

Barbosa AR, Souza JMP, Lebrao ML, Laurenti R, Marucci MdFN. Anthropometry of elderly residents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. 2005;21(6):1929-38.

Woo J. Nutritional strategies for successful aging. Med Clin North Am. 2011;95(3):477-93.

Fried LP, Tangen CM, Walston J, Newman AB, Hirsch C, Gottdiener J, Seeman T, Tracy R, Kop WJ, Burke G, McBurnie MA. Frailty in older adults: evidence for a phenotype. J Gerontol. 2001;56A(3):M146-M56.

Bergman H, Ferrucci L, Guralnik J, Hogan DB, Hummel S, Karunananthan S, Wolfson C. Frailty: An emerging research and clinical paradigm—issues and controversies. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2007;62(7):731-7.

Kuzuya M. Process of physical disability among older adults -contribution of frailty in the super-aged society. Nagoya J Med Sci. 2012;74:31-7.

Landi F, Russo A, Liperoti R, Pahor M, Tosato M, Capoluongo E, Bernabei R, Onder G. Midarm muscle circumference, physical performance and mortality: results from the aging and longevity study in the Sirente geographic area (ilSIRENTE study). Clinical Nutrition. 2010;29(4):441-7.

Walston J, Hadley EC, Ferrucci L, Guralnik JM, Newman AB, Studenski SA, Ershler WB, Harris T, Fried L. Research agenda for frailty in older adults: toward a better understanding of physiology and etiology: summary from the American Geriatrics Society/National Institute on Aging Research Conference on frailty in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2006;54(6):991-1001.

Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, Martin FC, Michel JP, Rolland Y, Schneider SM, Topinková E, Vanderwoude M, Zamboni M. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis: report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing. 2010;39(4):412-23.

Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Caderno de atenção básica 19 - Envelhecimento e saúde da pessoa idosa.Brasília (DF): Ministério da Saúde; 2009. p.36.

WHO. World Health Organization. Physical status: the use and interpretation of anthropometry. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Geneva: Worl Health Organization, 1995.

Landi F, Onder G, Russo A, Liperoti R, Tosato M, Martone AM, Capoluongo E, Barnabei R. Calf circumference, frailty and physical performance among older adults living in the community. Clinical Nutrition. 2014;33(3):539-44.

Seidell J, Visscher TLS. Body weight and weight change and their health implications for the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000;54(3):S33-S9.

Morley JE, Vellas B, van Kan GA, Anker SD, Bauer JM, Bernabei R, Cesari M, Chumlea WC, Doehner W, Evans J, Fried LP, Guralnik JM, Katz PR, Malmstrom TK, McCarter RJ, Robledo LMG,Rockwood K, von Haehling S, Vandewoude MF, Walston J. Frailty consensus: a call to action. JAMDA. 2013;14(6):392-7.

Bós AJG. Características fisiológicas do processo do envelhecimento. In: Busnello FM, editor. Aspectos nutricionais do processo do envelhecimento. São Paulo: Editora Atheneu; 2007.

Delarue J, Constans T, Malvy D, Pradignac A, Couet C, Lamisse F. Anthropometric values in an elderly French population. Br J Nutr. 1994;71:295-302.

Gomes I, Nogueira EL, Engroff P, Ely LS, Schwanke CHA, De Carli GA, Resende TL. The multidimensional study of the elderly in the family health strategy in Porto Alegre, Brazil (EMI-SUS). PAJAR. 2013;1(1):20-4.

Marfell-Jones M, Olds T, Stewart A, Carter L. International standars for anthropometric assessment. North-West University. South Africa.: International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. School of Biokinetics, Recreation and Sport.; 2006.

NHANES. Anthropometry procedures manual. Center of Disease Control; 2007 [Cited 2015 Mar 29]. Available from:

Garrow JS, Webster J. Quetelet's index (W/H2) as a measure of fatness. Int J Obes. 1985;9(2):147-53.

Chumlea WC, Roche AF, Steinbaugh ML. Estimating stature from knee height for persons 60 to 90 years of age. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1985;33(2):116-20.

Frisancho AR. New norms of upper limb fat and muscle areas for assessment of nutritional status. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981;34:2540-5.

Lohman TG, Roche AF, Martorell R. Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Champaign: Human Kinetics Books.; 1988.

Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Body mass index, waist circunference, and health risk. evidence in support of current National Institutes of Health guidelines. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2074-9.

Jackson AS, Pollock ML. Pratical assessment of body composition. Phys Sportsmed. 1985;13:256-62.

Coelho AC, Fausto MA. Avaliação pelo nutricionista. In: Maciel A. Avaliação multidisciplinar do paciente geriátrico. Rio de Janeiro: Revinter; 2002. p. 121-56.

Chumlea WC, Steinbaugh ML, Roche AF, Mukherjee D, Gopalaswamy N. Nutritional assessment of the elderly through anthropometry. Columbus: Ross Laboratories.; 1984.

Chumlea WC, Guo S, Roche AF, Steinbaugh ML. Prediction of body weight for the nonambulatory elderly from anthropometry. J Am Diet Assoc. 1988;88(5):564-8.

Tyagi R, Kapoor S, Kapoor AK. Body composition and fat distribution pattern of urban elderly females, Delhi, India. Coll Antropol. 2005;29(2):493-8.

Richelsen B, Pedersen SB. Associations between different anthropometric measurements of fatness and metabolic risk parameters in non-obese, healthy, middle-aged men. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1995;19(3):169-74.

Ohrvall M, Berglund L, Vessby B. Sagittal abdominal diameter compared with other anthropometric measurements in relation to cardiovascular risk. Int J Obes. 2000;24:497-501.

Risérus U, Arnlov J, Brismar K, Zethelius B, Berglund L, Vessby B. Sagittal abdominal diameter is a strong anthropometric marker of insulin resistance and hyperproinsulinemia in obese men. Diabetes Care. 2004;27:2041-6.

Kamimura MA, Baxmann A, Sampaio LR, Cuppari L. Avaliação nutricional. In: Cuppari L. Nutrição: nutrição clínica no adulto. 2a ed. Barueri - São Paulo: Manole; 2005.

Heymsfield SB, McManus C, Smith J, Stevens V, Nixon DW. Anthropometric measurement of muscle mass - revised equations for calculating bone-free arm muscle area. Am J Clin Nutr. 1982;36:680-90.

Vasques ACJ, Rosado LEFPL, Rosado GP, Ribeiro RCL, Franceschini SCC, Geloneze B, Priore SE, Oliveira DR. Habilidade de indicadores antropométricos e de composição corporal em identificar a resistência à insulina. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2009;53(1):72-9.

Carlsson AC, Riserus U, Engstrom G, Arnlov J, Melander O, Leander K, Gigante B, Hellénius ML, Faire U. Novel and established anthropometric measures and the prediction of incident cardiovascular disease: a cohort study. Int J Obes. 2013;37(12):1579-85.

Gavi S, Feiner JJ, Melendez MM, Mynarcik DC, Gelato MC, Mc.Nurlan MA. Limb fat to trunk fat ratio in elderly persons is a strong determinant of insulin resistance and adiponectin levels. J Gerontol Med Sci. 2007;62(9):997-1001.

Valdez R. A simple model-based index of abdominal adiposity. J Clin Epidemiol. 1991;46(5):491-4.

Fess EE. Grip strength. In: Casanova JS. Clinical assessment recommendations. Chicago: American Society of Hand Therapists; 1992. p. 41-5.

Batistoni SST, Neri AL, Cupertino APFB. Validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale among Brazilian elderly. Rev Saude Publica. 2007;41(4):1-7.

Taylor HL, Jacobs DR, Jr., Schuker B, Knudsen J, Leon AS, Debacker G. A questionnaire for the assessment of leisure-time physical activities. J Chronic Dis. 1978;31:745-55

Tresignie J, Scafoglieri A, Pieter Clarys J, Cattrysse E. Reliability of standard circumferences in domain-related constitutional applications. Am J Hum Biol. 2013;25(5):637-42.

Lipschitz DA. Screening for nutritional status in the elderly. Prim Care. 1994;21(1):55-67.

Mastroeni MF, Mastroeni SSdBS, Erzinger GS, Marucci MdFN. Antropometria de idosos residentes no município de Joinville-SC, Brasil. Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol. 2010;13(1):29-40.

Coqueiro RdS, Barbosa AR, Borgatto AF. Anthropometric measurements in the elderly of Havana, Cuba: Age and sex differences. Nutrition. 2009;25(1):33-9.

Canaan Rezende FA, Queiroz Ribeiro A, Priore SE, Castro Franceschini SD. Anthropometric differences related to genders and age in the elderly. Nutr Hosp. 2015;32(02):757-64.

Santos DM, Sichieri R. Body mass index and measures of adiposity among elderly adults. Rev Saude Publica. 2005;39(2):163-8.

Velázquez-Alva MC, Castillo-Martinez L, Irigoyen-Camacho E, Zepeda-Zepeda MA, Gutiérrez-Robledo LM, Cisneros-Moysen P. Estudio antropométrico en un grupo de hombres y mujeres de la tercera edad en la Ciudad de Mexico. Salud Publica Mex. 1996;38(6):466-74.

Velázquez-Alva MC, Irigoyen ME, Zepeda M, Sanchez VM, Garcia Cisneros MP, Castillo LM. Anthropometric measurements of a sixty-year and older Mexican urban group. J Nutr Health Aging. 2004;8(5):350-4.

Pfrimer K, Ferriolli E. Avaliação nutricional do idoso. In: Vitolo MR. Nutrição da gestação ao envelhecimento. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Rubio; 2008. p.436-49.

Fontanive R, Paula TP, Peres WAF. Avaliação da composição corporal de adultos. In: Duarte ACG. Avaliação nutricional: aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais. São Paulo: Atheneu. 2007. p. 41-63.

Durnin JVGA, Womersley J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr. 1974;32:77-97.

Kuczmarski MF, Kuczmarski RJ, Najjar M. Descriptive anthropometric reference data for older americans. J Am Diet Assoc. 2000;100(1):59-66.

Nazare JA, Smith J, Borel AL, Aschner P, Barter P, Van Gaal L, Tan CE, Wittchen HU, Matsuzawa Y, Kadowaki T, Ross R, Brulle-Wohlhueter C, Alméras N, Haffner SM, Balkau B, Després JP. Usefulness of measuring both body mass index and waist circumference for the estimation of visceral adiposity and related cardiometabolic risk profile (from the INSPIRE ME IAA study). Am J Cardiol. 2015;115(3):307-15.

Smith U. Abdominal obesity: a marker of ectopic fat accumulation. J Clin Invest. 2015;125(5):1790-2.

Sánchez-García S, García-Pe-a C, Duque-López M, Juárez-Cedillo T, Cortés-Nú-ez A, Reyes-Beaman S. Anthropometric measures and nutritional status in a healthy elderly population. BMC Public Health. 2007;7(1):2.

Cameron AJ, Magliano DJ, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, Carstensen B, Alberti KGMM, Tuomilehto J, Barr ELM, Pauvaday VK, Kowlessur S, Söderberg S. The influence of hip circumference on the relationship between abdominal obesity and mortality. Int J Epidemiol. 2012;41(2):484-94.

Manolopoulos KN, Karpe F, Frayn KN. Gluteofemoral body fat as a determinant of metabolic health. Int J Obes. 2010;34(6):949-59.

Snijder MB, Dekker JM, Visser M, Bouter LM, Stehouwer CD, Kostense PJ, Yudkin J, Heine RJ, Nijpels G, Seidell J. Associations of hip and thigh circumferences independent of waist circumference with the incidence of type 2 diabetes: the Hoorn Study. Am J Clin Nut. 2003;77:1192-7.

Santos JL, Albala C, Lera L, Garcia C, Arroyo P, Perez-Bravo F, Pérez-Bravo F, Angel B, Peláez M. Anthropometric measurements in the elderly population of Santiago, Chile. Nutrition. 2004;20(5):452-7.

Anakwe RE, Huntley JS, McEachan JE. Grip strength and forearm circumference in a healthy population. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2007;32(2):203-9.

Chagas P, Caramori P, Barcellos C, Galdino TP, Gomes I, Schwanke CHA. Associação de diferentes medidas e índices antropométricos com a carga aterosclerótica coronariana. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2011;97(5):397-401.

Ben-Noun L, Laorf A. Relationship of neck circunference to cardiovascular risc factors. Obes Res. 2003;11(2):226-31.

Subramanian S, Jayaraman G, Majid H, Aguilar R, Surani S. Influence of gender and anthropometric measures on severity of obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Breath. 2012;16(4):1091-5.

Vasques AC, Rosado L, Rosado G, Ribeiro RdC, Franceschini S, Geloneze B. Indicadores antropométricos de resistência à insulina. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95(1):e14-e23.

Martinez-Rivera C, Abad J, Fiz JA, Rios J, Morera J. Usefulness of truncal obesity indices as predictive factors for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Obesity. 2008;16(1):113-8.

Smith DA, Ness EM, Herbert R, Schechter CB, Phillips RA, Diamond JA, Landrigan PJ. Abdominal diameter index: a more powerful anthropometric measure for prevalent coronary heart disease risk in adult males. Diabetes Obes Metb. 2005;7(4):370-80.

Gobbo LA, Dourado DAQS, Almeida MFd, Duarte YAdO, Lebrão ML, Marucci MDFN. Massa muscular de idosos do município de São Paulo – Estudo SABE: Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n1p1. Rev Bras Cineantrop Desemp Hum. 2012;14(1).

Ashwell M, Hsieh SD. Six reasons why the waist-to-height ratio is a rapid and effective global indicator for health risks of obesity and how its use could simplify the international public health message on obesity. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2005;56(5):303-7.

Pitanga FJG, Lessa I. Razão cintura-estatura como discriminador do risco coronariano de adultos. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2006;52(3):157-61.

Mukuddem-Petersen J, Snijder MB, Van Dam RM, Dekker JM, Bouter LM, Stehouwer CDA, Heine RJ, Nijpels G, Seidell J. Sagittal abdominal diameter: no advantage compared with other anthropometric measures as a correlate of components of the metabolic syndrome in elderly from the Hoorn Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:995-1002.

Sampaio LR, Simões Ej, Assis AMO, Ramos LR. Validity and reliability of the sagittal abdominal diameter as a predictor of visceral abdominal fat. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2007;51(6):980-6.

Vasques AC, Cassani RS, Forti AC, Vilela BS, Pareja JC, Tambascia MA, Geloneze B. Sagittal abdominal diameter as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance in an admixtured population-brazilian metabolic syndrome study (BRAMS). PloS One. 2015;10(5):e0125365.

Madden AM, Smith S. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2014:00:00-00.

Kahn HS, Rissanen H, Bullard KM, Knekt P. The population distribution of the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and SAD/height ratio among Finnish adults. Clin Obes. 2014;4(6):333-41.

Klee Oehlschlaeger MH, Alberici Pastore C, Schuler Cavalli A, Gonzalez MC. Nutritional status, muscle mass and strength of elderly in southern Brazil. Nutr Hosp. 2014;31(01):363-70.

Baumgartner RN, Stauber PM, McHugh D, Koehler KM, Garry PJ. Cross-sectional age differences in body composition in persons 60 + years of age. J Gerontol. 1995;50A(6):M307-M16.

Coin A, Perissinotto E, Enzi G, Zamboni M, Inelmen EM, Frigo AC, Manzato E, Busetto L, Buja A, Sergi G. Predictors of low bone mineral density in the elderly: the role of dietary intake, nutritional status and sarcopenia. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62(6):802-9.

Alswat K, Adler SM. Gender differences in osteoporosis screening: retrospective analysis. Arch Osteoporos. 2012;7:311-3.

Closs VE, Feoli AMP, Schwanke CHA. Altura do joelho como medida alternativa confiável na avaliação nutricional de idosos. Rev Nutr. 2015;28(5):475-84.

Maden-Wilkinson TM, McPhee JS, Rittweger J, Jones DA, Degens H. Thigh muscle volume in relation to age, sex and femur volume. Age (Dordr). 2014;36(1):383-93.

Barbosa AR, Souza JMP, Lebrao ML, Marucci MF. Relação entre estado nutricional e força de preensão manual em idosos do município de São Paulo, Brasil. Rev Bras Cineantrop Desemp Hum. 2006;8(8):8.

Rolland Y, Czerwinski S, Abellan Van Kan G, Morley JE, Cesari M, Onder G, Woo J, Baumgartner R, Pillard F, Boirie Y, Chumlea WMC, Vellas B. Sarcopenia: its assessment, etiology, pathogenesis, consequences and future perspectives. J Nutr Health Aging. 2008;12(7):433-50.

Vellas B, Garry PJ, Guigoz Y. Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA): research and practice in the elderly. Switzerlan: Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series. Clinical & Performance Programme: 1999.

Enoki H, Kuzuya M, Masuda Y, Hirakawa Y, Iwata M, Hasegawa J, Izawa S, Iguchi A. Anthropometric measurements of mid-upper arm as a mortality predictor for community-dwelling Japanese elderly: the Nagoya Longitudinal Study of Frail Elderly (NLS-FE). Clinical Nutrition. 2007;26(5):597-604.

Campbell TM, Vallis LA. Predicting fat-free mass index and sarcopenia in assisted-living older adults. Age (Dordr). 2014;36(4):9674.

Zuliani G, Volpato S, Galvani M, Ble A, Bandinelli S, Corsi AM, Lauretani F, Maggio M, Guralnik JM, Fellin R, Ferrucci L. Elevated C-reactive protein levels and metabolic syndrome in the elderly: The role of central obesity data from the InChianti study. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203(2):626-32.

Porter Starr KN, McDonald SR, Bales CW. Obesity and physical frailty in older adults: a scoping review of lifestyle intervention trials. J Am Med Dir Association. 2014;15(4):240-50.

Hubbard RE, Lang IA, Llewellyn DJ, Rockwood K. Frailty, body mass index, and abdominal obesity in older people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010;65(4):377-81.

Cervi A, Franceschini SdCC, Priore SE. Análise crítica do uso do índice de massa corporal para idosos. Rev Nutr. 2005;18(6):765-75.

Macinko J, MHarris MJ, Phil D. Brazil's Family Health Strategy - delivering community-based primary care in a universal health system. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(23):2177-81.

How to Cite
Closs, V. E., Rosemberg, L. S., Ettrich, B. G., Gomes, I., & Schwanke, C. H. A. (2016). Anthropometric measurements in elderly assisted in primary health care and their association with gender, age and frailty syndrome: EMI-SUS data. Scientia Medica, 25(3), ID21176.
Original Articles