Prevalence and Factors Associated with Hypertension
A Cross-Sectional Study among Elderly Population in Pokhara Metropolitan
Aims: hypertension (HTN) is rapidly emerging as a public health problem among elderly in developing countries. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of hypertension and its associated factors among the elderly in Pokhara Metropolitan, Nepal.
Methods: a cross-sectional analytical study was carried out to assess hypertension among 323 community dwelling elderly in Pokhara Metropolitan from October 2019 to March 2020. Quota sampling was used to collect the samples. Elderly those who were attending hospitals or with any serious medical conditions were excluded from the study. Face to face interview was done for data collection and anthropometric measurements, and semi structured standard STEPS questionnaires were used as data collection tools. Data were entered in Epi DATA [Version 3.1] and analyzed using SPSS [Version 20] as per data analysis plan. Bivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted and statistical significance was declared at a p-value ≤ 0.05.
Results: prevalence of hypertension was reported among 34.4 percent (Male: 39.3%, Female 29%) elderly in Pokhara Metropolitan. The higher proportion of hypertensive cases were in age group 60-69 years (36%). The prevalence of hypertension was significantly associated with ethnicity (OR= 1.74, CI: 1.07-2.83), current alcohol intake (OR= 2.56, CI: 1.30-5.05) and mental stress (OR= 2.25, CI: 1.19-4.28).
Conclusion: more than one third of the elderly had hypertension. Ethnicity, current alcohol intake and mental stress are found to be factors associated with hypertension. Periodic screening for early detection of hypertension and implementing health promotion interventions to encourage behavior change among elderly may promote healthy ageing.
Kapil U, Khandelwal R, Ramakrishnan L, Khenduja P, Gupta A, Pandey RM, et al. Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, and associated risk factors among geriatric population living in a high-altitude region of rural Uttarakhand, India. J Family Med Prim Care. 2018;7(6):1527-36. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_108_18
Xiao L, Le C, Wang G-Y, Fan L-M, Cui W-L, Liu Y-N, et al. Socioeconomic and lifestyle determinants of the prevalence of hypertension among elderly individuals in rural southwest China: a structural equation modelling approach. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2021;21(1):1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-01885-y
Sekeon S, Kalesaran A, Kandou GD. The association between hypertension and quality of life among elderly: A population based comparison study with general population in Tomohon, Indonesia. Glob J Med Public Health. 2017;6:1-6.
Picon RV, Fuchs FD, Moreira LB, Fuchs SC. Prevalence of hypertension among elderly persons in urban Brazil: a systematic review with meta-analysis. American journal of hypertension. 2013;26(4):541-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hps076
World Health Organization. Noncommunicable diseases in the South-East Asia Region, 2011: situation and response; 2012.
Bosu WK, Aheto JM, Zucchelli E, Reilly S. Prevalence, awareness, and associated risk factors of hypertension in older adults in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. Systematic reviews. 2017;6(1):192. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-017-0585-5
Kafle R, Sharma D, Paudel N, Sapkota S, Alurkar V. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hypertension in a Rural Community of Western Nepal: A Cross Sectional Study. JAIM. 2018;7(1):11-6. https://doi.org/10.3126/jaim.v7i1.19577
Dhakal S, Singh R, Yadav U, Gurung L. Prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among elderly population in Dhapasi VDC of Kathmandu district. J Hypertens (Los Angel). 2017;6(242):2167-1095. https://doi.org/10.4172/2167-1095.1000242
World Health Organization. A global brief on hypertension: silent killer, global public health crisis: World Health Day 2013. World Health Organization; 2013.
Kumanan T, Guruparan M, Sreeharan N. Hypertension: “The Silent Killer”. Chennai: Kumaran Book House; 2018.
World Health Organization. High blood pressure-country experiences and effective interventions utilized across the European Region; 2013.
Boateng GO, Luginaah IN, Taabazuing M-M. Examining the risk factors associated with hypertension among the elderly in Ghana. Journal of aging and health. 2015;27(7):1147-69. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0898264315577588
Apidechkul T. Prevalence and factors associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension among the hill tribe elderly populations in northern Thailand. BMC public health. 2018;18(1):694. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5607-2
Guo J, Fei Y, Li J, Zhang L, Luo Q, Chen G. Gender-and age-specific associations between sleep duration and prevalent hypertension in middle-aged and elderly Chinese: a cross-sectional study from CHARLS 2011–2012. BMJ open. 2016;6(9):e011770. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011770
Aryal KK. Non communicable diseases risk factors: STEPS Survey Nepal 2013: Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC); 2014.
Ministry of Health. Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. New Era, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2016.
Khanal MK, Dhungana RR, Bhandari P, Gurung Y, Paudel K. Prevalence, associated factors, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension: Findings from a cross sectional study conducted as a part of a community based intervention trial in Surkhet, Mid-western region of Nepal. PLoS One. 2017;12(10):e0185806. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185806
Zhao C, Wong L, Zhu Q, Yang H. Prevalence and correlates of chronic diseases in an elderly population: A community-based survey in Haikou. PloS one. 2018;13(6):e0199006. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0199006
Mehboudi M, Nabipour I, Vahdat K, Darabi H, Raeisi A, Mehrdad N, et al. Inverse association between cigarette and water pipe smoking and hypertension in an elderly population in Iran: Bushehr elderly health programme. J Hum Hypertens. 2017;31(12):821. https://doi.org/10.1038/jhh.2017.64
Adhikari TB, Rijal A, Kallestrup P, Neupane D. Alcohol consumption pattern in western Nepal: findings from the COBIN baseline survey. BMC psychiatry. 2019;19(1):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2264-7
Bartwal J, Rawat CS, Awasthi S. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension among the Elderly Residing in Rural Area of Haldwani Block, in Nainital District of Uttarakhand. J Cardiovasc Disease Res. 2016;7(3):112-5. https://doi.org /10.5530/jcdr.2016.3.3
Hanif AAM, Shamim AA, Hossain MM, Hasan M, Khan MSA, Hossaine M, et al. Gender-specific prevalence and associated factors of hypertension among elderly Bangladeshi people: findings from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. BMJ open. 2021;11(1):e038326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038326
Lloyd-Sherlock P, Beard J, Minicuci N, Ebrahim S, Chatterji S. Hypertension among older adults in low-and middle-income countries: prevalence, awareness and control. International journal of epidemiology. 2014;43(1):116-28. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyt215
Zhou J, Fang S. Association between Undiagnosed Hypertension and Health Factors among Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2019;16(7):1214. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071214
Shukuri A, Tewelde T, Shaweno T. Prevalence of old age hypertension and associated factors among older adults in rural Ethiopia. Integr Blood Press Control. 2019;12:23-31. https://dx.doi.org/10.2147%2fibpc.s212821
Mendes TdAB, Goldbaum M, Segri NJ, Barros MBdA, César CLG, Carandina L. Factors associated with the prevalence of hypertension and control practices among elderly residents of São Paulo city, Brazil. Cad. Saúde Pública. 2013;29:2275-86. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311x00151312
Copyright (c) 2021 PAJAR - Pan American Journal of Aging Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The submission of originals to PAJAR implies the transfer by the authors of the right for publication. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication. If the authors wish to include the same data into another publication, they must cite PAJAR as the site of original publication.
Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise specified, material published in this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license, which allows unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original publication is correctly cited.