Toxoplasmosis and pregnancy: Perinatal results and association of the IgG avidity test with congenital infection in pregnant women with positive anti-<i>Toxoplasma gondii</i> IgM <b>[Abstract in English]</b>
AbstractAIMS: To verify the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women with acute toxoplasmosis, and to determine if there was association between the results of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG avidity test and the presence or absence of fetal/neonatal infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study included pregnant women with serological diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis (presenting a positive Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM test) attended at the outpatient unit for high-risk pregnancy of the Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the period from November 2002 to November 2007. Test results demonstrating IgG avidity index above 30% were considered high avidity, while values below 30% were considered low avidity. Fetal and/or neonatal infection was defined by positive result for the polymerase chain reaction in amniotic fluid, or by a positive Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM test in the newborn's serum. RESULTS: Considering all pregnant women referred to the outpatient unit for high-risk pregnancy in the period of study, frequency of pregnant women with positive Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM was 10.8% (176/1.634). The rate of congenital infection in these patients was 4% (7/176). The IgG avidity test was performed in 162 patients (92% of the 176 pregnant women with positive IgM), and the avidity was high in 144 (88.9%). There was an association (p=0.003) between high avidity and no fetal/neonatal toxoplasmosis in our sample, with a prevalence ratio of 13.4 (confidence interval [CI] 95% 2.2-86.6). The positive predictive value of the avidity test (probability of congenital infection with a low avidity) was 22% (95% 6%-47%), while the negative predictive value (probability of absence of congenital infection with a high avidity) was 98% (95% CI 94% -99%). CONCLUSIONS: In this study the rate of congenital infection in pregnant women diagnosed with acute toxoplasmosis was 4%. In pregnant women with positive Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgM, results of Toxoplasma gondii-specific IgG avidity test were associated with the presence or absence of congenital infection, with a high negative predictive value (no fetal/neonatal infection when avidity was high).
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