Justiça social na África do Sul

  • Jayanathan Govender School of Social Sciences College of Humanities University of KwaZulu-Natal South Africa
Palavras-chave: Justiça Social. Desigualdade. Desemprego. Desenvolvimento. Política.

Resumo

A África do Sul é o país mais desigual do mundo. A pobreza e a desigualdade, agravadas pelo desemprego, são os desafios mais importante do país. O atual governo tem feito progressos significativos em relação à prestação de serviços básicos e ampliação dos benefícios sociais. No entanto, a triste realidade é que a desigualdade cresceu desde o advento da democracia, mais de vinte anos atrás. Esta evolução é contrária aos compromissos da Constituição Sul-Africana e a provisão de políticas sociais, tornando assim mais graves as questões de direitos e justiça social. A continuidade, profundidade e amplitude da desigualdade, incluindo os custos financeiros e sociais extraordinárias, estão ligados ao legado do apartheid. A desigualdade é estruturalmente condicionada, espacial e economicamente. Fundamentalmente, a desigualdade é resultado do acesso diferencial à oportunidades e produtos do desenvolvimento humano. O artigo apresenta uma discussão teórica sobre a relação entre a desigualdade, a pobreza e o desemprego; identifica também algumas barreiras para mudanças; e apresenta abordagens experimentais de redução da desigualdade.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Jayanathan Govender, School of Social Sciences College of Humanities University of KwaZulu-Natal South Africa
PhD in Public Administration and Management from the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. Senior Lecturer in Industrial, Organizational and Labour Studies, School of Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa 

Referências

ATKINSON, Anthony B. Inequality: What can be done? Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2015.

BROOKINGS Institute. 2016: Inequality www.brookings.edu/research/topics/inequality> (9 Feb. 2016).

COSATU. Summary critique of the National Development Plan, 2013 (9 Feb. 2016).

EYEWITNESS News. News 24, 2016. (2 Feb. 2016).

FREUND, William. Swimming against the tide: the Macroeconomic Research Group in the South African Transition 1991-94. Review of African Political Economy, v. 40, n. 1338, p. 519-536, 2013 <10.1080/03056244.2013.854038>.

KEETON, Gavin. Inequality in South Africa. The journal of the Helen Suzman Foundation, v. 74, p. 26-31, 2014.

KHAN, Firoz. Violence, grants, poverty, inequality, unemployment and hope. Africa Insight, v. 44, n. 4, 2015.

KUMARAPPA, Joseph Cornelius. Gandhian Economic Thought. Sarva Seva Sangh Prakashan, 1951 <http://www.mkgandhi.org/ebks/Gandhian-Economic-Thought.pdf> (9 Feb. 2016).

MARRIAN, Natasha. 2015: Citizens rely too much on state. Business Day Live. 2015 (29 Jan. 2016).

MOTALA, Enver. Understanding inequality relationally. Post-School Education Review, v. 1, n. 4, p. 5-6, 2015.

NEW AGENDA: South African Journal of Social and Economic Policy. 1st Quarter, n. 53, 2014 <http://www.ajol.info/index.php/na/issue/view/11809> (21 June 16).

OXFAM. Even it up: time to end extreme poverty. Oxford: Oxfam International, 2014.

PIKETTY, Thomas. Capital in the twenty-first century. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2014.

REDDY, N. Wages, profits and employment in post-apartheid South Africa. Cape Town: AIDC, 2014.

RSA. The presidency. National Planning Commission. 2012 (29 Jan. 2016).

RSA. Millennium development goals: country report. 2013 (29 Jan. 2016).

RSA. The National Development Plan 2030. The Presidency, Pretoria. 2014.

SA Reserve Bank. Annual Report 2012/13. Pretoria, 2012.

SEN, Amartya. Human rights and capabilities. Journal of Human Development, v. 6, n. 2, p. 151-166, 2005 <10.1080/14649880500120491>.

STATISTICS SA. Quarterly labour force survey quarter 4 2011. Pretoria, 2012.

STATISTICS SA. Mid-year population estimates. Pretoria, 2014a.

STATISTICS SA. Poverty trends in South Africa: an examination of poverty trends between 2006 and 2011. Pretoria, 2014b.

STATISTICS SA. Poverty trends in South Africa: an examination of absolute poverty between 2006 and 2011. Report No. 03-10-06. Pretoria, 2014c.

STATISTICS SA. Quarterly labour force survey. Pretoria, 2014d.

STATISTICS SA. Earnings and spending in South Africa, 2006-2011. Pretoria, 2015.

STATISTICS SA. Employment, unemployment, skills and economic growth: an exploration of household survey evidence on skills development and unemployment between 1994 and 2014. Pretoria, 2015.

STIGLITZ, Joseph, E. The price of inequality. London: Allen Lane, 2012.

UNDP. The impact of social and economic inequality on economic development in South Africa. TIPS. Pretoria, 2014.

UNDP. Human Development Report – rethinking work for human development, 2015 <http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2015_human_development_report_1.pdf> (8 feb. 2016).

UNICEF. The impact of the international financial crisis on child poverty in South Africa. Unicef South Africa and the Financial and Fiscal Commission: South Africa, 2010 (9 feb. 2016).

UNISA. Household income and expenditure patterns in South Africa, 2011. Bureau for market research, pretoria: unisa, 2011. 258 Civitas, Porto Alegre, v. 16, n. 2, p. 237-258, abr.-jun. 2016

WORLD BANK. World Development Report 2004: making services work for poor people. London: Oxford University Press. 2004.

WORLD Bank. World Development Report 2006: equity and evelopment. London:Oxford University Press, 2006.

WORLD Bank. Economic Update: focus on inequality of opportunity. Washington: The World Bank Africa Region Poverty Reduction and Economic Management, 2012.

WORLD Bank. Ending extreme poverty and sharing prosperity: progress and policies. Washington: Policy Research Note/15/03, 2015.

WORLD Bank. World Development Report: mind, society and behaviour, 2015. (8 Feb. 2015).

Publicado
2016-09-01
Como Citar
Govender, J. (2016). Justiça social na África do Sul. Civitas - Revista De Ciências Sociais, 16(2), 237-258. https://doi.org/10.15448/1984-7289.2016.2.23076
Seção
Desigualdades, estratificação e justiça social