Ideas for integrating meaningful immediate repetition tasks in the English as an additional language classroom: promoting fluency
Although repetition is at the core of many different approaches to language learning, either implicitly or not, using this pedagogic practice in the additional language classroom is still negatively perceived by some teachers (Bygate and Samuda, 2005). For contemporary research, on the other hand, the use of
repetition is not incongruous with communicative additional language teaching approaches that bring the use of tasks to the forefront. The use of immediate repeated tasks can benefit learners because it allows the possibility of repeating slightly altered tasks in a meaningful way. Bearing this in mind, this paper describes three immediate repetition tasks that focus on the speaking skill aiming at developing both fluency and accuracy. All are inherently suited for the additional language classroom and can be easily adapted to better suit specific contexts.
Ahmadian, Mohammad J. & Tavakoli, Mansoor. 2011. The effects of simultaneous use of careful online and task repetition on accuracy, complexity, and fluency in EFL learners’ oral production. Language Teaching Research, 15 (1), p. 35-59. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168810383329
Bei, Gavin X. 2013. Effects of immediate repetition in L2 speaking tasks: a focused study. English Language Teaching, 6 (1), p. 11-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/elt.v6n1p11
Bygate, Martin. 2001. Effects of task repetition on the structure and control of oral language. In Bygate, M,. P. Skehan and M. Swain ed. Researching pedagogic tasks – second language learning and testing. Harlow: Longman. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315838267
Bygate, Martin & Samuda, Virginia. 2005. Integrative planning through the use of task repetition. In Rod Ellis (ed.) Planning and Task Performance in Second Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, p. 37-74. https://doi.org/10.1075/lllt.11.05byg
Côelho, Fabrício Mateus. (2017). It bears repeating: the effects of immediate repetition on learners’ L2 performance in a poster carrousel task. (Unpublished Masters thesis). Universidade Federal de Santa
Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil. https://repositorio.ufsc.br/xmlui/handle/123456789/181603.
Duffy, Gerald. G. & Roehler, Laura. R. 1989. Why strategy instruction is so difficult and what we need to do about it. In: Mccormick, Christine. B.; Miller, Gloria E. & Pressley, Michael. (ed.) Cognitive strategy research: From basic research to educational applications. New York: Springer Verlag, pg. 133-154. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-8838-8_6
Ellis, Rod. 2003. Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford, New York: Oxford Applied Linguistics.
Ellis, Rod. 2005. Instructed Second Language Acquisition: A Literature Review. Auckland UniServices Limited. Auckland: New Zealand.
Koponen, Matti & Riggenbach, Heidi. 2000. Overview: Varying perspectives on fluency. In: Riggenbach, H. (Ed.), Perspectives on fluency. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press, pg. 5-24. https://doi.org/10.3998/mpub.16109
Larsen-Freeman, Diane. 2012. On the roles of repetition in language teaching and learning. Applied Linguistics Review. 3 (2), pg. 195 – 210. https://doi.org/10.1515/applirev-2012-0009.
Long, Michael. H. 1996. The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. C. Ritchie, & T. K. Bahtia (ed.), Handbook of second language acquisition. New York: Academic Press, pg. 413-468.
Lynch, Tony & Maclean, Joan. 2000. Exploring the benefits of repetition and recycling of a classroom task. Language Teaching Research, 4 (3), pg. 221-250. https://doi.org/10.1177/136216880000400303
Lynch, Tony & Maclean Joan. 2001. A case of exercising: effects of immediate task repetition on learners’ performance. In Bygate, Martin; Skehan, Peter & Swain, Merrill (ed.) Researching Pedagogic Tasks: Second Language Learning, Teaching and Testing, pg. 141-162. Addison Wesley Longman. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315838267
Moiseenko, Veronika. 2015. Encouraging learners to create language-learning materials. English Teaching Forum, 53 (4), pg. 14-23.
Oxford, Rebecca L. 2006. Task-based language teaching and learning: An overview. Asian EFL Journal, 8(3), pg. 94-121.
Pegrum, Mark A. 2000. The Outside World as an extension of the EFL/ESL Classroom. The Internet TESOL Journal, 6 (8).
Saraceni, Mario. 2009. Relocating English: towards a new paradigm for English in the world. Language and Intercultural Communication, 9 (3), pg. 175-186. https://doi.org/10.1080/14708470902748830
Schmidt, Richard. 2001. Attention. In Robinson, P. (ed.) Cognition and second language instruction. Cambridge University Press, pg. 3-32. Skehan, Peter. 2003. Task-based Instruction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Copyright (c) 2020 BELT - Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The submission of originals to BELT - Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal implies the transfer by the authors of the right for publication. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication. If the authors wish to include the same data into another publication, they must cite BELT - Brazilian English Language Teaching Journal as the site of original publication.
Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise specified, material published in this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license, which allows unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original publication is correctly cited.