From Empirical Evidence to First Principles

Thomas Kuhn’s Methodological Revolution

Palavras-chave: Thomas Kuhn, História da Ciência, Naturalismo, Epistemologia Evolutiva

Resumo

Das evidências empíricas aos primeiros princípios: a revolução metodológica de Thomas Kuhn

A Estrutura das Revoluções Científicas representou um marco na tentativa de compreender o desenvolvimento científico baseado a partir de observações empíricas. Entretanto, nas décadas seguintes após a publicação do livro, a história, a psicologia e a sociologia tornaram-se cada vez mais marginais nas discussões de Kuhn. Nos seus últimos artigos, Kuhn chegou mesmo a sugerir que os filósofos deveriam prestar menos atenção aos dados empíricos e concentrar-se mais em “primeiros princípios”. O objetivo deste artigo é, em primeiro lugar, descrever esta transformação radical na abordagem metodológica de Kuhn, do seu naturalismo inicial até sua posterior e mais estrita posição filosófica. Em seguida, apresento algumas das alegadas justificações para explicar esta transição, tais como o seu interesse em problemas mais firmemente ligados à tradição filosófica e um desejo de maior aceitação dentro desta comunidade. Embora tais fatores tenham certamente desempenhado um papel na explicação da mudança de Kuhn, acredito também que um importante componente teórico desempenhou uma função fundamental nessa transição: a ideia de que o desenvolvimento científico é uma espécie de processo evolutivo que pode ser melhor compreendido mais com a utilização de modelos teóricos abstratos do que com observações esparsas da atividade científica.

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Biografia do Autor

Paulo Pirozelli, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, Brasil.

Doutor em Filosofia pela Universidade de São Paulo. Atualmente faz pós-doutorado em Filosofia pela Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina.

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Publicado
2020-12-31
Como Citar
Pirozelli, P. (2020). From Empirical Evidence to First Principles: Thomas Kuhn’s Methodological Revolution. Veritas (Porto Alegre), 65(3), e38523. https://doi.org/10.15448/1984-6746.2020.3.38523
Seção
Epistemologia & Filosofia da Linguagem