Escala de ansiedade ao falar em público (EAFP)

Evidências de sua adequação psicométrica

Palavras-chave: Ansiedade, falar em público, validade, precisão

Resumo

Este estudo objetiva adaptar a Escala de Ansiedade ao Falar em Público (EAFP) para o contexto brasileiro, reunindo evidências de sua validade fatorial e consistência interna. Dois estudos foram realizados com amostra de universitários. O Estudo 1 participaram 211 pessoas (Midade = 25 anos; DPidade = 9,18; 58,8% homens), tendo os resultados sugerido uma estrutura unifatorial constituída pelos 14 itens que se mostraram discriminativos. No Estudo 2 participaram 208 pessoas (Midade = 25 anos; DPidade = 7,79; 79% mulheres), confirmando a estrutura unifatorial, que se demonstrou invariante quanto ao sexo, apresentando validade convergente com indicadores de saúde geral e confiança de falar em público. Concluiu-se que a versão brasileira da EAFP reuniu evidências psicométricas adequadas, apoiando seu uso em pesquisas que avaliem ansiedade de falar em público.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Ana Karla Silva Soares, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brasil.

Doutora em Psicologia pela Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), em João Pessoa, MS, Brasil; professora da Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), em Campo Grande, MS, Brasil.

Aline de Sá Lima, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brasil.

Graduada em Psicologia pela Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), em Campo Grande, MS, Brasil.

Alessandro Teixeira Rezende, Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), João Pessoa, PB, Brasil

Mestre em Psicologia pela Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), em João Pessoa, MS, Brasil.

Leogildo Alves Freires, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceió, AL, Brasil.

Doutor em Psicologia pela Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), em João Pessoa, MS, Brasil; professor da Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), em Maceió, AL, Brasil.

Eduardo França do Nascimento, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS, Brasil

Graduando em Psicologia pela Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), em Campo Grande, MS, Brasil.

Referências

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.

Antony, M. M., Orsillo, S. M., & Roemer, L. (2001). Practitioner's guide to empirically based measures of anxiety. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Baker, F. B. (2001). The basics of item response theory (Second edition). Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED458219.

Bartholomay, E. M., & Houlihan, D. D. (2016). Public Speaking Anxiety Scale: Preliminary psychometric data and scale validation. Personality and Individual Differences, 94, 211-215. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2016.01.026.

Beiter, R., Nash, R., McCrady, M., Rhoades, D., Linscomb, M., Clarahan, M., & Sammut, S. (2015). The prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students. Journal of affective disorders, 173, 90-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2014.10.054.

Chalmers, R. P. (2012). MIRT: A multidimensional item response theory package for the R environment. Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 1–29. (DOI INEXISTENTE)

Cheng, J., Niles, A. N., & Craske, M. G. (2017). Exposure reduces negative bias in self-rated performance in public speaking fearful participants. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 54, 101-107. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2016.07.006

Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural equation modeling, 9, 233-255. (DOI INEXISTENTE)

Cho, Y., Smits, J. A. J., & Tech, M. J. (2004). The speech anxiety thoughts inventory: Scale development and preliminary psychometric data. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42, 13–25. doi:10.1016/S0005-79670300067-6.

Chodkiewicz, J., & Miniszewska, J. (2015). The Polish adaptation of the public speaking anxiety questionnaire. Psychiatr. Pol, 49, 95-105. doi: 10.12740/PP/22448.

Clark, J. V., & Arkowitz, H. (1975). Social anxiety and self-evaluation of interpersonal performance. Psychological reports, 36, 211-221. (DOI INEXISTENTE)

Curran, P. G. (2016). Methods for the detection of carelessly invalid responses in survey data. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 66, 4-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2015.07.006.

Dueñas, L. J., Restrepo-Castro, J. C., & Becerra Garcia, A. M. (2018). Reliability and factorial analysis of the Public Speaking Anxiety Scale in Spanish (PSAS-S). Psychology & Neuroscience, 11, 50-57. doi: 10.1037/pne0000126.

Ferrando, P. J., & Lorenzo-Seva, U. (2017). Program FACTOR at 10: origins, development and future directions. Psicothema, 29, 236-240. doi: 10.7334/psicothema2016.304.

Fraj-Andrés, E., Lucia-Palacios, L., & Pérez-López, R. (2018). How extroversion affects student attitude toward the combined use of a wiki and video recording of group presentations. Computers & Education, 119, 31, 43.doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2017.12.006.

Gawronski, B., Morrison, M., Phills, C. E., & Galdi, S. (2017). Temporal stability of implicit and explicit measures: A longitudinal analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 43, 300-312. doi: 10.1177/0146167216684131.

Gilkinson, H. (1942). Social fears reported by students in college speech classes. Speech Monographs, 9, 131–160. doi: 10.1080/03637754209390068.

Glass, C. R., Merluzzi, T. V., Biever, J. L., & Larsen, K. H. (1982). Cognitive assessment of social anxiety: Development and validation of a self-statement questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6, 37-55. (DOI INEXISTENTE)

Glassman, L. H., Forman, E. M., Herbert, J. D., Bradley, L. E., Foster, E. E., Izzetoglu, M., & Ruocco, A. C. (2016). The effects of a brief acceptance-based behavioral treatment versus traditional cognitive-behavioral treatment for public speaking anxiety: an exploratory trial examining differential effects on performance and neurophysiology. Behavior modification, 40, 748-776. doi: 10.1177/0145445516629939.

Gouveia, V. V., Chaves, S. S. S., Oliveira, I. C. P., Dias, M. R., Gouveia, R. S. V. & Andrade, P. R. (2003). A utilização do QSG-12 na população geral: Estudo de sua validade de construto. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 19, 241-238. (DOI INEXISTENTE)

Hair, J. F. J., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2015). Multivariate data analysis (7 edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Hee, H. M. (2017). A Study on the Impact of Speech Anxiety Thoughts on Self-efficacy and Career Preparation Behavior of College Seniors. International Information Institute (Tokyo). Information, 20, 445-452. (DOI INEXISTENTE)

Heimberg R. G, Hofmann S. G, Liebowitz M. R, Schneier F. R, Smits J. A, Stein M. B, Craske M. G (2014). Social anxiety disorder in DSM-5. Depress Anxiety, 31, 472–479. doi: 10.1002/da.22231.

Hofmann, S. G., & DiBartolo, P. M. (2000). An instrument to assess self-statements during public speaking: Scale development and preliminary psychometric properties. Behavior Therapy, 31, 499–515.

Homer, S. R., Deeprose, C., & Andrade, J. (2016). Negative mental imagery in public speaking anxiety: Forming cognitive resistance by taxing visuospatial working memory. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 50, 77-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.05.004.

Hook, J. N., Smith, C. A., & Valentiner, D. P. (2008). A short-form of the personal report of confidence as a speaker. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1306–1313. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.11.021.

Hunter, K. M., Westwick, J. N., & Haleta, L. L. (2014). Assessing success: The impacts of a fundamentals of speech course on decreasing public speaking anxiety. Communication Education, 63, 124-135. doi: 10.1080/03634523.2013.875213.

Jackson, B., Compton, J., Thornton, A. L., & Dimmock, J. A. (2017). Re-thinking anxiety: Using inoculation messages to reduce and reinterpret public speaking fears. PloS one, 12, 1-18. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169972.

Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., ... & Kendler, K. S. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of general psychiatry, 51, 8-19. (DOI INEXISTENTE)

Kumar, P., Kaur, J., & Thakur, N. (2017). Public Speaking Anxiety in Relation to Different Demographic Factors. International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4, 1-15. doi: 10.25215/0404.024.

Lang, P. J. (1971). The application of psychophysiological methods to the study of psychotherapy ad behavior modification. In A. E. Bergin, & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 75–125). New York, NY: Wiley.

Li, C. H. (2016). Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data: Comparing robust maximum likelihood and diagonally weighted least squares. Behavior Research Methods, 48, 936-949. doi: 10.3758/s13428-015-0619-7.

Lorenzo-Seva, U., & Ferrando, P. J. (2006). FACTOR: A computer program to fit the exploratory factor analysis model. Behavior Research Methods, 38, 88-91. (DOI INEXISTENTE)

Lorenzo-Seva, U., Timmerman, M. E., & Kiers, H. A. L. (2011). The Hull method for selecting the number of common factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 46, 340-364. doi: 10.1080/00273171.2011.564527.

Martin-Lynch, P., Correia, H., & Cunningham, C. (2016). Public speaking anxiety: The SAD implications for students, transition, achievement, success and retention, 1-10.

McCroskey, J. C. (1970). Measures of communication-bound anxiety. Speech Monographs, 37, 269–277. doi: 10.1080/03637757009375677.

Miller, L. A., Lovler, R. L., & McIntire, S. A. (2013). Foundations of psychological testing: A practical approach (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Motley MT (1990). Public speaking anxiety qua performance anxiety: A revised model and an alternative therapy. J Soc Behav Pers, 5, 85–104.

Muthén, L.K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus: The comprehensive modeling program for applied research (6th ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén&Muthén.

Nash, G., Crimmins, G., & Oprescu, F. (2016). If first-year students are afraid of public speaking assessments what can teachers do to alleviate such anxiety?. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 41, 586-600. doi:10.1080/02602938.2015.1032212.

Paul, G. L. (1966). Insight vs desensitization in psychotherapy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Primi, C., Morsanyi, K., Chiesi, F., Donati, M. A., & Hamilton, J. (2016). The development and testing of a new version of the cognitive reflection test applying item response theory (IRT). Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 29, 453-469. doi: 10.1002/bdm.1883.

Ruscio, A. M., & Khazanov, G. K. (2017). Anxiety and depression. The Oxford Handbook of Mood Disorders. Oxford University Press, New York (pp. 313-324).

Safir, M. P., Wallach, H. S., & Bar-Zvi, M. (2012). Virtual reality cognitive-behavior therapy for public speaking anxiety: one-year follow-up. Behavior modification, 36, 235-246. doi:10.1177/0145445511429999.

Samejima, F. (1968). Estimation of latent ability using a response pattern of graded scores1. ETS Research Bulletin Series, 1968, 1-172. doi: 10.1002/j.2333-8504.1968.tb00153.x.

Shapiro, A., & Ten Berge, J. M. (2002). Statistical inference of minimum rank factor analysis. Psychometrika, 67, 79-94. doi: 10.1007/BF02294710.

Shin, K. E., & Newman, M. G. (2017). Using Retrieval Cues to Attenuate Return of Fear in Individuals With Public Speaking Anxiety. Behavior Therapy, 49, 212-224. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2017.07.011.

Spector, P. E., Van Katwyk, P. T., Brannick, M. T., & Chen, P. Y. (1997). When two factors don’t reflect two constructs: How item characteristics can produce artifactual factors. Journal of Management, 23, 659-677. (DOI INEXISTENTE)

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Xu, H., & Tracey, T. J. G. (2017). Use of Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Examining Measurement Invariance in Counseling Psychology Research. The European Journal of Counselling Psychology, 6, 75-82. doi:10.5964/ejcop.v5i2.120.

Zhang, X., Noor, R., & Savalei, V. (2016). Examining the effect of reverse worded items on the factor structure of the need for cognition scale. PloS one, 11, 1-15, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157795.

Publicado
2020-12-31
Como Citar
Silva Soares, A. K., Lima, A. de S., Rezende, A. T., Freires, L. A., & Nascimento, E. F. do. (2020). Escala de ansiedade ao falar em público (EAFP): Evidências de sua adequação psicométrica. Psico, 51(4), e33790. https://doi.org/10.15448/1980-8623.2020.4.33790
Seção
Artigos