Literacia em Contato e em Contexto

Leitura e Escrita Multilíngue nas Rotas da Seda

Palavras-chave: Literacia, Multilinguismo, Leitura e escrita

Resumo

De acordo com a UNESCO, pelo menos 2.500 línguas faladas estão vulneráveis. Chinês, inglês, espanhol, árabe, hindu, português, bengali, russo, japonês e francês são “hegemonias” – cada uma tendo pelo menos 100 milhões de falantes nativos e representando mais de 51 porcento da população global. Metade das hegemônicas são escritas com um alfabeto. Para o grupo não-alfabético, os falantes nativos podem ler e escrever em sistemas de escrita logográficos (por exemplo, o chinês) ou silábicos (por exemplo, o devanágari) ou ambos (por exemplo, o japonês). Em línguas faladas por menos de um milhão de pessoas, os sistemas de escrita latino, arábico e chinês dominam, mas eles nem sempre se assentam de forma transparente com dialetos ou línguas locais. Multiletramento é um fenômeno global crescente, particularmente na Ásia. No século 21, o acesso à mídia eletrônica incluirá falantes multiliterados. Isto provavelmente também é um fenômeno global devido à ampliação do acesso a tecnologias tais como smartfones, mídia social e redes rápidas. No entanto, a multiliteracia traz perguntas. A multiliteracia é tão antiga quanto a civilização devido ao seu contato entre línguas usadas no comércio, ideologias e religião. A literacia se adapta às novas tecnologias por meio de codificação de símbolos que permitem o crescimento da multiliteracia. A documentação da escrita tem uma história, porém não é proeminente na política global. Os programas para desenvolver a literacia são reservados para as “hegascripts” (línguas dominantes) monolíngues, por exemplo o inglês. No entanto, negligenciar a diversidade dos sistemas de escrita em países em desenvolvimento traz o risco de desigualdades se os falantes de uma língua indígena forem letrados apenas na sua língua não nativa.

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Biografia do Autor

Brendan Stuart Hackett Weekes, University of Hong Kong (HKU), Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong. State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Hong Kong

Membro Fundador em Communication Science na University of Hong Kong (HKU), em Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong; Diretor do Laboratory for Communication Science na HKU; Investigador Principal em State Key Laboratory for Brain and Cognitive Science.

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Publicado
2020-09-03
Como Citar
Weekes, B. S. H. (2020). Literacia em Contato e em Contexto: Leitura e Escrita Multilíngue nas Rotas da Seda. Letrônica, 13(4), e37538. https://doi.org/10.15448/1984-4301.2020.4.37538