Prospectando uma Teoria Crítica da política

Palavras-chave: Teoria Crítica, Escola de Frankfurt, Teoria política, Teoria sociológica, Política

Resumo

A questão da relevância política atual da Teoria Crítica aponta para um problema mais profundo: o da relação fundamental entre a Teoria Crítica e a política. O status de seu relacionamento deve ser considerado complicado. A política, diz um julgamento amplamente difundido, não tem lugar no cosmos da Teoria Crítica: ali onde poderia ou deveria estar o lugar para uma análise teoricamente refletida da política, segundo a reprovação repetidamente ouvida (por exemplo, Howard 2000), ali há uma lacuna no centro da histórica “Escola de Frankfurt” (Wiggershaus 1995; Jay 1973) em torno de Max Horkheimer e Theodor W. Adorno. A seguir, não queremos apenas atestar outro “déficit de política” na Teoria Crítica “clássica”, mas sim, por um lado, medir a relação exata com o objeto da política e, por outro lado, lançar um olhar sobre o estado atual da teoria, que se mostra bastante diverso. Perguntar se e como uma Teoria Crítica da política é possível hoje porém não significa meramente refletir sobre os desenvolvimentos atuais. Estamos convencidos de que esta importante tarefa precisa primeiro de uma base teórica para poder explorar todo o potencial da abordagem. Nesse sentido, é necessário explorar como, nas atuais circunstâncias, a programática clássica da Teoria Crítica pode ser vinculada à política. Para lançar luz sobre os problemas com os quais o pensamento contemporâneo sobre a possibilidade e a forma de uma Teoria Crítica da política é confrontado, começaremos abordando com algum detalhe a questão do lugar da política na Teoria Crítica e a política dos teóricos críticos, para na sequência delinear cinco níveis teóricos (teoricidade, aspiração, programática, metodologia teórica, núcleo temporal) e três caminhos principais (aprofundamento, reorientação e retorno) com base em abordagens atuais.

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Biografia do Autor

Ulf Bohmann, Technische Universität Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.

Dr. Phil. at Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Germany, research fellow in sociological theory at the Technische Universität Chemnitz, in Chemnitz, Germany.

Paul Sörensen, Universität Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany.

Dr. Phil. at Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Germany, research fellow in political theory at the Universität Augsburg, in Augsburg, Germany. Currently (2021-2022) visiting professor at the Universität Wien, Viena, Austria.

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Publicado
2022-06-20
Como Citar
Bohmann, U. ., & Sörensen, P. (2022). Prospectando uma Teoria Crítica da política. Civitas - Revista De Ciências Sociais, 22, e42204. https://doi.org/10.15448/1984-7289.2022.1.42204
Seção
Dossiê: Atualidade política da Teoria Crítica