Repensando nossa crise dos refugiados com Hannah Arendt

  • Helgard Mahrdt Universidade de Oslo
Palavras-chave: Europa, Refugiados, Direitos humanos, Xenofobia, Hospitalidade.

Resumo

A Europa encara uma onda de refugiados e migrantes. Resolver os muitos problemas inerentes é principalmente uma tarefa política prática. No entanto, existem experiências existenciais, valores democráticos, atitudes humanas e princípios políticos envolvidos, e este artigo atenta particularmente para três aspectos da crise dos refugiados: (1) o existencial (refiro-me ao filósofo Martin Heidegger e à pensadora política Hannah Arendt), (2) o político (volto-me para os passos da UE em direção a uma política comum de refugiados) e (3) o legal (refiro-me à noção de hospitalidade de Immanuel Kant e às notas de Seyla Benhabib sobre Direitos Humanos). Finalmente, farei uma observação final sobre a tarefa da educação (refiro-me à noção de philia de Hannah Arendt e Aristóteles).

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

AGAMBEN, Giorgio. Means without End. Notes on Politics. Minneapolis/London: University of Minnesota Press. 2000.

ALFRED, Charlotte. Expert Discussion: The Future of the E.U. – Turkey Refugee Deal. In: News Deeply, August 30, 2016. Available

in: <https://www.newsdeeply.com/refugees/articles/2016/08/30/

expert-discussion-the-future-of-the-e-u-turkey-refugee-deal>. Access: Mar. 03, 2017.

ARENDT, Hannah. The Human Condition. 2. ed. Introduction by Margaret Canovan, Chicago & London: The University of Chicago Press, [1958]/1998.

ARENDT, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. New York: Harcourt Brace, [1951]/1994.

ARENDT, Hannah. Between Past and Future. Eight Exercises in Political Thought. New York: Penguin Books, [1961]/1993.

ARENDT, Hannah. On Revolution. New York: Viking/London: Faber & Faber, [1963]/1990.

ARENDT, Hannah. Men in Dark Times. Harcourt, New York: Brace & World, Inc., 1968.

ARENDT, Hannah. On Hannah Arendt. In: HILL, Melvin A. (Org.). Hannah Arendt: the Recovery of the Public World. New York: St. Martin's, 1979. p. 301-339.

ARENDT, Hannah. The Life of the Mind. One Volume Edition. Mary McCarthy (Org.). San Diego, New York, London: Harcourt, Inc., 1981.

ARENDT, Hannah. Philosophy and Politics. Social Research, v. 57, n. 1, p. 73-103, Spring 1990.

ARENDT, Hannah. A Reply to Eric Voegelin. In: KOHN, Jerome (Org.). Essays in Understanding 1930-54. New York: Schocken Books, 1994a. p. 401-408.

ARENDT, Hannah. Understanding and Politics. In: KOHN, Jerome (Org.). Essays in Understanding 1930-54. New York: Schocken Books, 1994b. p. 307-327.

ARENDT, Hannah. The Nation. In: KOHN, Jerome (Org.). Essays in Understanding 1930-54. New York: Schocken Books, 1994. p. 206-211.

ARENDT, Hannah. Concern with Politics in Recent European Philosophical Thought. In: KOHN, Jerome (Org.). Essays in Understanding 1930-54. New York: Schocken Books, 1994c. p. 428-447.

ARENDT, Hannah. Introduction into Politics. In: KOHN, Jerome (Org.). The Promise of Politics. New York: Schocken Books, 2005. p. 93-204.

ARENDT, Hannah. We Refugees. In: KOHN, Jerome; FELDMAN, Ron H. (Org.). The Jewish Writings. New York: Schocken Books, 2007. p. 264-274.

BAKER, Gideon. Right of entry or right of refusal? Hospitality in the law of nature and nations. Review of International Studies, v. 37, n. 3, July 2011. p. 1423-1445. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210510001269

BARDI, Balint. Xenophobia running high before Hungary's migrant referendum. In: euobserver, July 2016. Available in: <https://euobserver.com/migration/134363>. Access: 9 Oct. 2016.

BBC NEWS.Migrant crisis: EU splits exposed as talks take place. September 2015. Available in: http://www.bbc.com/news/worldeurope-34332759>. Access in: 23 Sept. 2015.

BENHABIB, Seyla. Cosmopolitanism and Democracy: Affinities and Tensions. Hedgehog Review, Critical Reflections on Contemporary Culture, v. 11, n. 3, 2009. p. 30-41.

BIRMINGHAM, Peg. Hannah Arendt and Human Rights. The Predicament of Common Responsibility. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2006.

BOSWELL, Christina. European values and the asylum crisis, International Affairs, v. 76, n. 3, 2000, p. 537-557. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2346.00150

DEARDEN, Lizzie. Germany attacks. Merkel refuses to change refugee policy amid calls for crackdown after Isis-inspired killings.

In: Independent, July 2016. Available in: <http://www.independent.

co.uk/news/world/europe/germany-attacks-angela-merkelrefuses-

to-change-refugee-policy-amid-calls-for-crackdownfollowing-

a7159926.html>. Access in: 9 Oct. 2016.

DEMPSEY, Judy. Merkel's Refugee Crisis. In: Carnegie Europe, Sept. 2015.

EUROPEAN COUNCIL. Informal meeting of heads of state or government, 23/09/2015. In: European Commission Press Release, 5 Oct. 2015.

FASSIN, Didier. Policing Borders, Producing Boundaries.The Governmentality of Immigration in Dark Times. The Annual Review of Anthropology, v. 40, 2011. p. 213-26. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-anthro-081309-145847

FOREST, Danielle. Poland to accept 5,000 refugees: A summary of events. In: Krakow Post, Sept. 2015. Available in: <http://www.krakowpost.com/10477/2015/09/poland-to-accept-5000- refugees>. Access in: 22 Oct. 2015.

FRENCH, Craig. To lose one's home in the world: The injustice of immigrant detention. Journal of International Political Theory, v. 11, n. 3, October 2015. p. 351-369. https://doi.org/10.1177/1755088215585026

GALL, Lydia. Pig-head propaganda: Hungary's war on refugees. In: euobserver, Aug. 2016. Available in: <https://euobserver.com/opinion/134762>. Access in: 10 Oct. 2016.

GLEES, Anthony. Germany a hippie state being led by its emotions. In: BBC World Service, Sept. 2015. Available in: <http://www.bbc.

co.uk/programmes/p03200f8>. Access: 9 Sept. 2015.

HALL, Melanie. Slovakia 'will only accept Christian refugees'. In: DW, Aug. 2015; Available in: <http://www.dw.com/en/slovakiawill-only-accept-christian-refugees/a-18659254>. Access in: 20 Aug. 2015.

HEIDEGGER, Martin. Building Dwelling Thinking.In: FARRELL KRELL, David (Org.). Martin Heidegger. Basic Writings. London/

New York: Routledge, 2011. p. 239-255.

HEUER, Wolfgang. Europe and Its Refugees: Arendt on the Politicization of Minorities. Social Research, v. 74, n. 4, Winter 2007. p. 1159-1172.

INGRAM, James. What Is a “Right to Have Rights?” Three Images of the Politics of Human Rights. American Political Science Review, v. 102, n. 4, p. 401-416, Nov. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055408080386

KANT, Immanuel. Zum Ewigen Frieden – Ein philosophischer Entwurf. In: WEISCHEDEL, Wilhelm (Org.). Immanuel Kant Werke, Bd. 9, Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1975. p. 194-251.

KARRER, Sabine. We are writing History right now. In: Twitter, Sept. 2015. Available in: <https://twitter.com/fraukassandra/status/645330685771780096>. Access in: 19 Sept. 2015.

KATTAGO, Siobhan. The Specter of Fear – Europe after the Paris attacks. In: Public Seminar, Nov. 2015. Available in:

publicseminar.org/author/skattago/>. Access in: 23 Nov. 2016.

KAVIC, Sasa.Hungary won't open ‘corridors’ for refugees on its southern borders. In: RT (Reuters), Oct. 2015. Available in: <https://www.rt.com/news/319314-hungary-refugee-crisis-borders/>. Access in: 22 Oct. 2015.

KERN, Soeren. Germany: “No Change to Open-Door Migration Policy”. In: Gatestone Institute International Policy Council, 2016. Available in: <https://www.gatestoneinstitute.org/8591/germanyopen-door-migration>. Access in: 07 Mar. 2017.

LALL, Rashmee Roshan. Europe's refugee policy is tainted by fear of the other. In: The National, Oct. 2015. Available in:

www.thenational.ae/opinion/comment/europes-refugee-policy-stainted-by-fear-of-the-other>. Access in: 20 Oct. 2015.

LEWIS, Bernard. From Babel to Dragomans. Interpreting the Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

MERKEL, Angela. Flüchtlingskrise wird Deutschland verändern. Sept. 2015. Available in: <http://de.euronews.com/2015/09/07/

merkel-fluechtlingskrise-wird-deutschland-veraendern>. Access in: 7 Sept. 2015.

NARDELLI, Alberto. Europeans feel a duty to help refugees – but not in their own countries. In: The Guardian, Oct. 2015. Available in: <http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2015/oct/30/

european-attitudes-towards-refugees-poll-eu>. Access in: 30 Oct. 2015.

OLTERMANN, Philip. Angela Merkel's party beaten by rightwing populists in German elections. In: The Guardian, Sept. 2016. Available in: <https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/sep/04/

mecklenburg-vorpommern-german-anti-immigrant-party-trongregional-election-exit-polls-merkel>. Access in: 9 Oct. 2016.

PAREKH, Serena. Hannah Arendt and the Challenge of Modernity. A Phenomenology of Human Rights. Oxford: Routledge 2008.

PATERSON, Tony. Refugee crisis: German village Sumte shows reality behind open door policy – with 102 residents and 750 refugees. In: Independent, Nov. 2015. Available in:

independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/refugee-crisis-germanvillage-sumte-shows-the-reality-behind-angela-merkel-s-opendoor-policy-with-a6724741.html>. Access in: 6 Nov. 2015.

ROTHWELL, James; FOSTER, Peter; CSEKO, Balazs. Hungary referendum: 98 per cent of voters say 'no' to EU migrant quotas. In: The Telegraph, Oct. 2016. Available in: <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/10/02/hungary-votes-no-to-migrant-quotaspolls-suggest---but-what- does/>. Access in: 9 Oct. 2016.

ROY VAN ZUIJDEWIJN, Jeanine de. Responding to terrorism: Merkel's speech after the attack on the Christmas Market in Berlin. In: Universiteit Leiden. Leiden Safety and Security Blog, 2016. Available in: <http://www.leidensafetyandsecurityblog.nl/articles/

responding-to-terrorism-merkels-speech-after-the-attack-on-thechristmas-ma>. Access in: 07 Mar. 2017.

SCHUSTER-CRAIG, Johanna. How the Berlin Christmas market terror attack affects Chancellor Merkel and Europe. In: The Conversation. Available in: <http://theconversation.com/how-theberlin-christmas-market-terror-attack-affects-chancellor-merkeland-europe-70753>. Access in: 20 Sept. 2017.

SCHUTZ, Aaron; SANDY, Marie G. Friendship and the Public Stage: Revisiting Hannah Arendt's Resistance to, Political Education. Educational Theory, v. 65, n. 1, p. 21-38, Feb. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1111/edth.12093

SCOTT, Baily. Xenophobia Raises Its Ugly Head in the European Refugee Crisis. In: Sigma Iota Rho, Journal of International Relations, Oct. 2015. Available in: <http://www.sirjournal.org/oped/2015/10/7/xenophobia-raises-its-ugly-head-in-the-europeanrefugee-crisis>. Access in: 10 Oct. 2016.

SMALE, Alison. Far-right overtakes Angela Merkel's Bloc in Her Home State. In: The New York Times, Sept. 3, 2016. Available in: <http://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/05/world/europe/angelamerkel-germany-mecklenburg-vorpommern-elections-refugees.html>. Access in: 9 Oct. 2016.

SMITH, Helena. Shocking images of drowned Syrian boy show tragic plight of refugees. In: The Guardian, Sept. 2015. Available in: <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/sep/02/shockingimage-

of-drowned-syrian-boy-shows-tragic-plight-of-refugees>.Access in: 2 Sept. 2015.

SYRING, Tom. International Norm-Making on Forced Displacement: Challenges and Complexity (Introductory Remarks). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (American Society of International Law), v. 106, n. 28, p. 429-430, Mar. 2012.

VESTBAKKE, Anne. Marte Löfven: Europa harmoralskansvar. In: msn nyheter, Sept. 2015. Available in: <http://www.msn.com/

nb-no/nyheter/verden/l%C3%B6fven-europa-harmoralskansvar>.

Access in: 07 Mar. 2017.

VOLK, Christian. Überlegungen zu einer freiheitlichen Weltordnung im Anschluss an Arendt und Montesquieu. Renovatio, v. 3-4, p. 11-20, 2009.

Publicado
2017-12-04
Como Citar
Mahrdt, H. (2017). Repensando nossa crise dos refugiados com Hannah Arendt. Estudos Ibero-Americanos, 43(3), 535-547. https://doi.org/10.15448/1980-864X.2017.3.26138
Seção
Dossiê: Amor Mundi - Atualidade e Recepção de Hannah Arendt