As ruas como “verdadeira” democracia? A experiência Sul-Americana

  • Carlos De La Torre
Palavras-chave: Equador, Bolivia, Venezuela, Revoltas Populares.

Resumo

Com base na literatura existente este estudo analisa como – na virada do século e no século 21 – ativistas no Equador, Venezuela e Bolívia construíram narrativas voltadas para “o povo em ação”. Os defensores das insurreições enquadraram as suas ações em mitos dos povos puros e oprimidos se revoltando contra a tirania das elites econômicas e políticas. Elites responderam diferenciando “o povo autêntico” da turba. Manifestantes pobres, não-brancos e indígenas foram retratados pelas elites como a ralé, como não civilizados, e, em geral, como um perigo para a democracia.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Referências

ANDOLINA, Robert. The Sovereign and Its Shadow: Constituent Assembly and Indigenous Movement in Ecuador. Journal of Latin American Studies, v. 35, n. 4, p. 721-750, nov. 2003.

ARAÚZ, Francisco Herrera. Los golpes del poder al aire. El 21 de enero a través de la radio, Quito: Abya-Yala, 2001.

CANNON, Barry. Venezuela, April 2002: Coup or Popular Rebellion? The Myth of a United Venezuela. Bulletin of Latin American Research, v. 23, n. 3, p. 285-302, 2004.

COLLOREDO-MANSFELD, Rudi. Fighting Like a Community. Chicago: The Chicago University Press, 2010.

CORONIL, Fernando. Venezuela’s Wounded Bodies: Nation and Imagination During the 2002 Coup. NACLA, v. 44, n. 1, p. 33-39, 2011.

DE LA TORRE, Carlos. Populist Seduction in Latin America. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2010.

DUNKERLEY, James. Evo Morales, the ‘Two Bolivias’ and the Third Bolivian Revolution. Journal of Latin American Studies, v. 39, p. 133-166, 2007.

ENCARNACIÓN, Omar. Venezuela’s Civil Society Coup. World Policy Journa, v. 19, n. 2, p. 38-48, 2002.

FURET, François. Interpreting the French Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

GOTTBERG, Luis Duno. The Color of Mobs: Racial Politics, Ethnopopulism, and Representation in the Chávez Era. In: SMILDE, Davil; HELLINGER, Daniel (org.). Venezuela’s Bolivarian Democracy. Durham: Duke University Press, 2011.

GRAU, Vladimiro Álvarez. El Golpe detrás de los Ponchos. Quito: EDINO, 2000.

GUTIÉRREZ, Lucio. Un País Para Todos Los Ecuatorianos. In: DIETERICH, Heinz. La Cuarta Vía al Poder, Ediciones Abya-Yala, 2000. Disponivel em: <http://repository.unm.edu/bitstream/handle/1928/10548/La%20cuarta%20v%EDa%20al%20poder.pdf?sequence=1>.

HABERMAS, Jürgen. Popular Sovereignty as Procedure. Between Facts and Norms. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1996.

HARNECKER, Marta. Understanding The Venezuelan Revolution. New York: Monthly Review Press, 2005.

HERNÁNDEZ, José (Org.). 21 de Enero. La Vorágine que Acabó con Mahuad. Quito: El Comercio, 2000.

HYLTON, Forrest; THOMPSON, Sinclair. Ya es otro el tiempo presente. Introducción. In: HYLTON, Forrest (Org.). Ya es otro tiempo el presente. La Paz: Muela del Diablo, 2003.

______. Revolutionary Horizons. Past and Present in Bolivian Politics. London: Verso, 2007.

IVAK, Martín. Evo Morales. New York: Palgrave, 2008.

LACLAU, Ernesto. On Populist Reason. London: Verso, 2005.

LASERNA, Roberto. Bolivia: entre populismo y democracia. Nueva Sociedad, v. 188, p. 4-14, 2003. Disponível em: <http://www.plataformademocratica.org/Publicacoes/17714_Cached.pdf>.

LAZARTE, Jorge. Nuevos Códigos de Poder en Bolivia. La Paz: Plural, 2010.

LEVITSKY, Steven; LOXTON, James. Populism and Competitive Authoritarianism in the Andes. Democratization, v. 20, n. 1, p. 107-136, 2013.

LINERA, Álvaro García. Biografía Política e Intelectual. Conversaciones con Pablo, Stefanoni, Franklin Ramírez y Maritsella Svampa. La Paz: Le Monde Diplomatique, 2009.

______. La crisis del estado y las sublevaciones indígeno plebeyas. In: TAPIA, Luis; LINERA, Alvaro García; ALCOREZA, Raúl Prada (Orgs.). Memorias de Octubre. La Paz, Bolivia: Muela del Diablo Editores, 2004.

______. State Crisis and Popular Power. New Left Review, n. 37, p. 73 85, 2006.

LÓPEZ-MAYA, Margarita. Del Viernes Negro al Referendo Revocatorio. Caracas: Alfadil Ediciones, 2005.

MACAS, Luis: BELOTE, Linda; BELOTE, Jim. Indigenous destiny in indigenous hands. In: WHITTEN, Norman Whitten (Org.). Millenial Ecuador. Iowa City: Iowa University Press, 2003.

MAYORGA, René Antonio. Outsiders and Neopopulism: The Road to Plebiscitary Democracy. In: MAINWARING, Scott; BEJARANO, Ana María; LEONGÓMEZ, Eduardo Pizarro (Orgs.). The Crisis of Democratic Representation in the Andes. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2006.

NÄSTRÖM, Sofia. The Legitimacy of the People. Political Theory, v. 35, n. 5, p. 624-658, 2007.

PATZI, Félix Paco. Sistema comunal: una propuesta alternativa al sistema liberal: una discusión rica para salir de la colonialidad y del liberalismo. La Paz, Bolivia: Comunidad de Estudios Alternativos (CEA), 2004.

PÉREZ-LIÑÁN, Aníbal. Presidential Impeachment and the New Political Instability in Latin America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

POSTERO, Nancy. Morales’s MAS Government Building Indigenous Popular Hegemony in Bolivia. Latin American Perspectives, v. 37, n. 3, 2010.

ROSANVALLON, Pierre. Counter Democracy. Politics in the Age of Distrust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

SALTOS, Napoleón. La Rebelión del Arco Iris: Testimonios y Análisis. Quito: Fundación José Peralta, 2000.

SEWELL, William. Historical Events as Transformations of Structures: Inventing Revolution at the Bastille. Theory and Society, v. 25, n. 6, 1996.

SILVA, Eduardo. Exchange Rising? Karl Polanyi and Contentious Politics in Contemporary Latin America. Latin American Politics and Society, v. 54, n. 3, 2012.

VALENZUELA, Arturo. Latin American Presidencies Interrupted. In: DIAMOND, Larry; PLATTNER, Marc; ABENTE, Diego (Orgs.). Latin America’s Struggle for Democracy. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008.

VARGAS, Antonio. Nos Faltó Estrategia. In: DIETERICH, Heinz (Org.). La Cuarta Vía al Poder. Bogotá: Ediciones Desde Abajo, 2001.

WALSH, Catherine. The Ecuadorian Political Irruption: Uprisings, Coups, Rebellions, and democracy. Neplanta: Views from South, v. 2, n. 1, 2001.

ZAMOSC, León. Popular impeachments: Ecuador in Comparative Perspective. In: SZNAJDER, Mario Luis Roniger; FORMENT, Carlos (Orgs.). Shifting Frontiers of Citizenship: The Latin American Experience. Leiden-Boston: BRILL, 2013.

______. The Indian Movement and Political Democracy in Ecuador. Latin American Politics and Society, v. 49, n. 3, 2007.

ZIBECHI, Raúl. Dispersing Power: Social Movements as Anti-State Forces. Oakland: AK Press, 2010.

Publicado
2015-11-29
Como Citar
De La Torre, C. (2015). As ruas como “verdadeira” democracia? A experiência Sul-Americana. Estudos Ibero-Americanos, 41(2), 328-350. https://doi.org/10.15448/1980-864X.2015.2.21304
Seção
Revoltas Populares Contemporâneas Numa Perspectiva Comparada