Osteoimmunology applied to maxillofacial reconstruction
Keywords:Bone graft, allografts, osteoimmunology, osteoclast
AbstractThis literature review aimed to discuss some current aspects related to osteoimmunology applied to maxillofacial reconstruction. Maxillary rehabilitation with implants may demand bone grafting before implant placement in the alveolar ridge. Allografts have been introduced to prevent surgery in a secondary area. Cryopreservation is an important method to decrease tissue antigenicity, but other techniques can also be used such as sterilization by gamma radiation or ethylene oxide. Immunology may participate in the incorporation or rejection process of bone grafts by increasing bone resorption. Several molecules, such as interleukins, receptor activators of nuclear factor κβ ligand RANKL, nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), early B cell factor (EBF-2), and osteopontegrin establish the relation between immunological cells and bone graft metabolism. Evidences from the literature suggest that frozen allogenic bone may be a good material for jaw onlay grafts since they do not induce immunological rejection. Key words: Bone graft; allografts; osteoimmunology; osteoclast
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