Tratado de direitos? Sobre o Risalat al-huqūq do imam Zayn al-‘Abidin

Palavras-chave: direitos no Islã, xiismo, justiça no Islã, verdade

Resumo

O texto traduzido como o “Tratado dos direitos” ( Risalat al-huqūq) foi escrito pelo quarto imam shiita Zayn al-‘Abidin (659-713. A tradução é, ao mesmo tempo, adequada e imprecisa, pois huqūq inclui o sentido de ‘direitos’, porém não se reduz a esse. O propósito deste ensaio é, portanto, contribuir ao entendimento do termo haqq, cujo plural é huqūq, com base num texto do islã antigo e considerando a pluralidade e a superposição dos seus níveis semánticos, no intuito de alimentar potenciais exercícios de teoria política e jurídica comparadas. Como resultado, é possível identificar oito níveis de sentido diferentes mas interconectados, que compreendem dimensões ético-religiosas, jurídicas e ontológicas.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Carlos Andrés Ramírez, Universidad de los Andes (Uniandes), Cundinamarca, Bogotá, Colombia.

Profesor del Departamento de Ciencia Política de la Universidad de los Andes.

Referências

AABEDEEN, Zaynul. Al-Saheefah Al-Sajjadiyyah Al-Kaamelah (The Psalms of Islam). Qum, The Islamic Republic of Iran: Ansariyan Publications, 1430.

AL-BUJARI, Muhammad Ibn Ismail. Al-Buhari. Die Sammlung der Hadithe. Stuttgart: Reclam, 1991.

AL- QARASHI, BAQIR SHARIF. The Life of Imam Zayn al-‘Abidin Author: Baqir Sharif al- Qarashi. Trad. Jasim al- Rasheed. first. [s.l.]: Ansariyan Publications, Qum, 2000. Disponível em: https://www.al-islam.org/life-imam-zayn-al-abidin-baqir-sharif-al-qurashi. Acesso em: 5 dez. 2020.

AMIR-MOEZZI, Mohammad; JAMBET, Christian. What is Shīʿī Islam?: an introduction. London and New York: Routledge, 2018. Disponível em: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/muwo.12293. Acesso em: 22 jan. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1111/muwo.12293.

AN NAWAWI, Imam. Jardín de los justos. [s.l.]: Junta Islámica. Centro de documentación y publicaciones islámicas., 1999.

ASAD, Talal. Thinking About Tradition, Religion, and Politics in Egypt Today. Critical Inquiry, v. 42, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1086/683002.

BOTTERWECK, Johannes. Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. [s.l.: s.n.], 1986.

CHITTICK, William. Introduction. In: AL-ABIDIN, Imam Zayn (Ed.). `Treatise on Rights’. Al-Islam.org. [s.l.: s.n., s.d.]. Disponível em: https://www.al-islam.org/treatise-rights-risalat-al-ḥuqūq-imam-ali-zayn-al-abidin. Acesso em: 6 dez. 2020.

DAKAKE, Maria. The Charismatic Community: Shi’ite identity in early islam. USA: State University of New York Press, 2007.

DAVID LITTMAN. Universal human rights and Human Rights in Islam’. [s.l.]: Midstream, 1999.

EMON, Anver. Natural Law in Islam. In: ANGIER, Tom (Org.). The Cambridge Companion to Natural Law Ethics. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 179–196. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108525077.010

FOUCAULT, Michel. Historia de la sexualidad: el uso de los placeres. Argentina: Siglo XXI Editores, [s.d.].

GODREJ, Farah. Towards a Cosmopolitan Political Thought: the hermeneutics of Interpreting the Other. Polity, v. 41, n. 2, p. 135–165, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1057/pol.2008.28

HALLAQ, Wael. ‘God cannot be harmed’ On Huqūq Allāh/ḥuqūq al-‘ibād continuum. In: EL FADL, Khaled Abou; HASSAN, Said Fares; AHMAD, Atif Ahmad; (Orgs.). Routledge Handbook of Islamic Law. London and New York: Routledge, 2019. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315753881-4

HALLAQ, Wael. Shari’a: theory, practice, transformations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

HALLAQ, Wael. The Impossible State: islam, politics, and modernity’s moral predicament. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

HAQ, Nomanul. The taxonomy of Truth in the Islamic Religious Doctrine and Tradition. In: NEVILLE, Robert (Org.). Religious truth: a volume in comparative religious ideas project. USA: State university of New York Press, 2001.

IMAM ALI IBN ‘ALI TALIB. Consejos para un buen gobierno: carta del Imam ‘Ali (P) a su gobernador Malik al-Ashtar. Qum: Fundación Cultural Oriente, 2009.

IMAM ALI IBN ABU TALIB. Peak of Eloquence: Nahjul-Balagha. New York: Tahrike Tarsile Qur’an, Inc. Publishers & Distributors of Holy Qur’an, 2009.

JALAL AL-’AZM, Sadik. Orientalism in Reverse. In: MACFIE, Alexander L. (Org.). Orientalism: a Reader. New York: New York University Press, 2001, p. 217–238.

KAMALI, Mohammad. Fundamental Rights of the Individual: An Analysis of Haqq (Right) in Islamic Law Mohammad H. Kamak. American Journal of Islamic Societies, v. 10, n. 3, p. 343, 1993. https://doi.org/10.35632/ajis.v10i3.2491

KAZEMI, Farhad. Two perspectives on Islam and Civil Society. Islamic Political Ethics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014, p. 38–55. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400825370.38

KHORASANI, Sadat; ZAKI DIZACHI, Nayer; FATHI, Ali. The Relational Analysis of the Term “Ḥaqq” in the Holy Quran. International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU), v. 6, n. 5, 2019. https://doi.org/10.18415/ijmmu.v6i5.973

LAKHANI, Ali. The metaphysics of human governance: Imam ‘Ali, truth and justice. In: LAKHANI, Ali (Org.). The Sacred Foundations of Justice in Islam: the teachings of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib. Canada: World Wisdom, Inc. and Sacred Web Publishing, 2006, p. 3–60.

MADHOK, Sumi. Five notions of Haq: exploring vernacular rights cultures in South Asia. New Working Paper Series, v. 25, p. 1–52, 2009.

MARSHALL G. S. HODGSON. How Did the Early Shî’a become Sectarian? Journal of the American Oriental Society, v. 75, n. 1, p. 1–13, 1955. https://doi.org/10.2307/595031

MUTAHHARI, Murtada. Training & Education in Islam. Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies. Ahlul Bayt University, 2011.

NASR, Hussein. Introduction. In: M. ALI LAKHANI (Org.). The Sacred Foundations of Justice in Islam: the teachings of ’Ali ibn Abi Talib (Perennial Philosophy). [s.l.: s.n., s.d.].

O’SHAUGHNESSY, Thomas. Creation with wisdom and with the Word in the Qu’ran. Journal of the American Oriental Society, v. 91, n. 2, p. 208–221, 1971. https://doi.org/10.2307/600099

PANIKKAR, Raimon. What is comparative philosophy comparing? In: G.J. LARSON; E. DEUTSCH (Orgs.). Interpreting Across Boundaries: new essays in comparative philosophy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988, p. 116–136. https://doi.org/10.1515/9781400859276.116

SALAYMEH, Lena. The Beginnings of Islamic Law: late antique islamicate legal traditions. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316459485

SEARLE, John. A Taxonomy of Illocutionary Acts. In: GUNDERSON, Keith. (org.), Language, Mind and Knowledge (Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. VII). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1975.

SHARĪF, R. M. Ḥ.; JAFERY, M. A. Nahjul Balagha =: Peak of eloquence: sermons, letters, and sayings of Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib. Bombay: Iman Foundation, 1989.

SMIRNOV, A. Understanding Justice in an Islamic Context: Some Points of Contrast with Western Theories. Philosophy East and West, v. 46, n. 3, p. 337–350, 1996. https://doi.org/10.2307/1399527

TÂLIB, Imam. ‘Ali Ibn Abi. Consejos para un buen gobierno: carta del imam ’ALi (P) a su gobernador Malik al-Ashtar. Qom, República Islámica de Irán: Fundación Cultural Oriente, 2009.

VAHIDNIA, Farahnaz; HASAN NAQIZADIH; GHOLAMRIDA RAISIAN. Shi‘a Rijali Views of Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Shihab al-Zuhri. Journal of Shi‘a Islamic Studies, v. VII, n. 1, p. 5–21, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1353/isl.2014.0001

WEBER, Max. Economía y sociedad: esbozo de sociología comprehensiva. México D.F. Madrid: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 2002.

WEBER, Ralph. “How to Compare?” – on the methodological state of comparative philosophy. Philosophy Compass, v. 8, n. 7, p. 593–603, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1111/phc3.12042

El Corán. Edición comentada de Raúl González Bórnez. Trad. Raúl González, Bórnez. Qum, The Islamic Republic of Iran: Centro de Traducciones del Sagrado Corán, 2008.

La Santa Biblia. Trad. Casiodoro de Reina; Cipriano de Valera. Salt Lake City, Utah, EE. UU.: La Iglesia de Jesucristo de los Santos de los Últimos Días, 2009.

Publicado
2021-05-11
Como Citar
Ramírez, C. A. (2021). Tratado de direitos? Sobre o Risalat al-huqūq do imam Zayn al-‘Abidin. Veritas (Porto Alegre), 66(1), e40061. https://doi.org/10.15448/1984-6746.2021.1.40061
Seção
Ética e Filosofia Política