Effects of cigarette smoking on oral hygiene status
AbstractObjective: The aim of this study was to compare the oral hygiene status between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers among patients with periodontitis. Methods: The study included 40 individuals aged 25 to 60 years who showed at least 1 site with probing depth ≥ 4 mm and clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm. Smokers were classified according to the number of cigarettes smoked per day (heavy vs. light smokers) and smoking duration (short- vs. long-term smokers). The oral hygiene status was assessed by plaque index (PI) and calculus index (CI), and gingival inflammation was evaluated by the gingival index (GI). Results: Smokers showed more sites with visible plaque (63.84±19.19) as compared to nonsmokers (61.76±25.25). Compared to other subgroups, CI was largest among heavy (0.6503±0.2575) and long-term smokers (0.7303±0.1656), and GI was highest in the nonsmoker group (0.3467±0.2749) (all P<0.05, Student’s t-test). Conclusion: The results suggest that smokers demonstrate less inflammatory response, poorer oral hygiene, and greater calculus accumulation compared to nonsmokers.
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