Effects of cigarette smoking on oral hygiene status

  • Adriana de Fátima Vasconcelos Pereira Federal University of Maranhão-UFMA
  • Ana Caroline Silva Castro
  • Quezia de Lima Ramos
  • Cláudia Maria Coelho Alves Federal University of Maranhão - UFMA
  • Antonio Luiz Amaral Pereira Federal University of Maranhão - UFMA
Keywords: Tobacco, periodontal diseases, oral hygiene,


Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the oral hygiene status between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers among patients with periodontitis. Methods: The study included 40 individuals aged 25 to 60 years who showed at least 1 site with probing depth ≥ 4 mm and clinical attachment loss ≥3 mm. Smokers were classified according to the number of cigarettes smoked per day (heavy vs. light smokers) and smoking duration (short- vs. long-term smokers). The oral hygiene status was assessed by plaque index (PI) and calculus index (CI), and gingival inflammation was evaluated by the gingival index (GI). Results: Smokers showed more sites with visible plaque (63.84±19.19) as compared to nonsmokers (61.76±25.25). Compared to other subgroups, CI was largest among heavy (0.6503±0.2575) and long-term smokers (0.7303±0.1656), and GI was highest in the nonsmoker group (0.3467±0.2749) (all P<0.05, Student’s t-test). Conclusion: The results suggest that smokers demonstrate less inflammatory response, poorer oral hygiene, and greater calculus accumulation compared to nonsmokers.

Author Biography

Adriana de Fátima Vasconcelos Pereira, Federal University of Maranhão-UFMA
Professor Adjunto, Faculdade de Odontologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão-UFMA. Especialista em Periodontia (UNICASTELO-CE), mestre em Periodontia (UNICAMP) e doutora em Odontologia, área de Materiais Dentários (USP).


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Original Article