The role of immune system in the development of periodontal disease: a brief review
Keywords:Immunology, periodontitis, cytokines, chemotaxis, antibodies
AbstractPeriodontitis is a highly complex and multi-factorial disease. This review summarizes some immunological factors involved in the development and control of this oral disease, such as: the participation of inflammatory cells in local inflammation, the synthesis of chemotaxis proteins with activation of the complement system and a range of antimicrobial peptides, such as defensins, cathelicidin and saposins. The integration of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from microorganisms with their surface receptors in the immune cells, induces the production of several cytokines and chemokines that presents either a pro- and/or anti-inflammatory role by stimulating the secretion of a great variety of antibody subtypes and the activation of mechanisms of controlling the disease, such as the regulatory T cells. Although several studies have tried to clarify some of the immune mechanisms involved in periodontal disease, more studies must be conducted to understand its development and progression and consequently to discover new alternatives for the prevention and treatment of this severe inflammatory disease.
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