Fluoride intake in preschoolers from two different communes in Santiago, Chile
Keywords:Fluoride, children, ingestion
AbstractPurpose: To determine the fluoride intake in three- to five-year-old preschool children from two communes in Chile, one with a non-fluoridated public water supply (Maipú) and the other with fluoridated public water supply since 1996, at a fluoride concentration of 0.6 mg/L (Peñalolen). Methods: Cross-sectional, observational design. The sample population was composed of 200 three-to-five-year-old children attending four kindergartens in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile, in the communes of Maipú and Peñalolen. Intake of fluoride was measured in a morning urine sample by using an ion-specific electrode and creatinine concentration. The fluoride intake from other sources was estimated from the parents’ and educators’ survey answers. Results: The daily dose of fluoride intake (DDI) for all Maipú preschoolers was 0.021 mg F/kg body weight (bw)/day, a value less than the optimal dose, which is 0.05 to 0.07 mg F/kg bw/day. The DDI for the Peñalolen sample reached 0.066 mg F/kg bw/day. There is a contribution from fluoride toothpaste ingestion of 0.019 mg F/kg bw/day in Maipú and 0.017 mg F/kg bw/day in Peñalolen. The overall frequency of daily brushing was 3.15 times, during which 31% of Maipú children and 33% of Peñalolen children ingested toothpaste. The estimated amount of fluoride intake from toothpaste and tea consumption explained the contribution of fluoride not coming from fluoridated water. Conclusion: The fluoride ingestion from water and other sources in the preschool commune of Peñalolen is much higher than the fluoride intake in preschoolers of the Maipú district.
The submission of originals to Odonto Ciência implies the transfer by the authors of the right for publication. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication. If the authors wish to include the same data into another publication, they must cite Odonto Ciência as the site of original publication.
CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE
As this journal is open access, the articles are allowed free use in scientific and educational applications, with citation of the source.
According to the type of Creative Commons License (CC-BY 4.0) adopted by Odonto Ciência, the user must respect the requirements below.
You are free to:
Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
However, only under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests Odonto Ciência endorses you or your use.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
For more details on the Creative Commons license, please follow the link in the footer of this website.