Molecular characterization of Streptococcus mutans gtfB gene isolated from families
OBJECTIVE: Caries is a multifactorial infectious disease and the main etiological agent is the bacteria Streptococcus mutans due to its virulence factors, which enable the adherence to dental enamel and favours the formation of dental biofilm through the production of extracellular polysaccharides. The transmission of S. mutans can occur between people, often within families. The present study aimed to evaluate the intrafamily genetic pattern of S. mutans through partial sequencing of the gene that encodes the glucosyltransferase β (gtfB) enzyme.
METHODS: We previously analyzed saliva samples from 40 individuals from nine families, and it was obtained 64 isolates biochemically characterized as S. mutans. The isolates were evaluated by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Those with greater similarity were characterized by partial sequence 16S rRNA gene and the gtfB gene sequencing.
RESULTS: It was observed genetic similarity among strains isolated from individuals with caries activity; while isolates from individual without caries showed that they are genetically distinct, suggesting a different virulence pattern.
CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that partial sequencing of the gtfB gene showed to be a potential marker to investigate genetic pattern and virulence of S. mutans, deserving further investigation in order to identify families at risk of caries.
Selwitz RH, Ismail A, Pitts NB. Dental caries. The Lancet 2007;6:51-9.
Taubman MA, Nash DA. The scientific and public-health imperative for a vaccine against dental caries. Nature Rev 2006; 6: 555-563.
Bowen WH, Koo H. Biology of Streptococcus mutans-derived glucosyltransferases: role in extracellular matrix formation of cariogenic biofilms. Caries Res 2011;45:69-86.
Koo H, Xiao J, Klein MI, Jeon JG. Exopolysaccharides produced by Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferases modulate the establishment of microcolonies within multispecies biofilms. J Bacteriol 2010; 192: 3024-32.
Nakai Y, Shinga-Ishihara C, Kaji M, Moriya K, MurakamI-Yamanaka K, Takimura M. Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of Mutans Streptococci. J Dent Res 2010;89:56-60.
Moser SA, Mitchell SC, Ruby J, Momeni DS, Osgood RC, Whiddon J, Childers NK. Repetitive extragenic extragenic palindromic PCR for study of Streptococcus mutans diversity and transmission in human populations. J Clin Microbiol 2010; 48: 599-602.
Ministério da Saúde. Brasil. [Accessed on 2012 May12]. Available at
Moreira M, Vicente VA, Glienke C. Genetic variability of Streptococcus mutans isolated from low-income families, as shown by RAPD markers. Braz J Microbiol 2007; 38: 729-735.
Fujiwara T, Terao Y, Hoshino T, Kawabata S, Ooshima T, Sobue S, Kimura S, Hamada S. Molecular analyses of glucosyltransferase genes among strains of Streptococcus mutans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1998, 15;161(2):331-6.
Argimon S, Alekseyenko AV, De Salle R, Caufield PW. Phylogenetic analysis of glucosyltransferases and implications for the coevolution of Mutans Streptococci with their mammalian hosts. Plos One 2013;8(2): e56305.
Momeni SK, Whiddon J, Moser SA, Cheon K, Ruby JD, Childers NK. Comparative Genotyping of Streptococcus mutans by Repetitive ExtragenicPalandromic PCR and Multilocus Sequence Typing. Mol Oral Microbiol. 2013;28(1):18-27.
Moreira M, Noschang J, Neiva IF, Carvalho Y, Higuti IH, Vicente VA. Methodological variations in the isolation of genomic DNA from Streptococcus bacteria. Braz Arch Biol Techn 2010;53:845-9.
Nakano K, Inaba H, Nomura R, Nemoto H, Takeda M, Yoshioka H, Matsue H, Takahashi T, Taniguchi K, Amano A, Ooshima T. Detection of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in extirpated heart valve and atheromatous plaque specimens. J Clin Microbiol 2006;9:3313-7.
Oho T, Yamashita Y, Shimazaki Y, Kushiyama M, Koga T. Simple and rapid detection of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in human saliva by polymerase chain reaction. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2000;15(4): 258-62.
Staden R, Judge DP, Bonfield JK. Sequence assembly and finishing methods. Meth Biochem Anal 2001;43:303-22.
Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S. MEGA5: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using Maximum Likelihood, evolutionary distance, and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28(20)2731-9.
Stamatakis A, Hoover P, Rougemont J. A fast bootstrapping algorithm for the RAxML Web-Servers. System Bio 2008;57:758-71.
Bastos VAS, Freitas-Fernandes LB, Fidalgo TKS, Martins C, Mattos CT, Souza IPR, Maia LC. Mother-to-child transmission of Streptococcus mutans: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent 2015;43:181-19.
Slayton RL. Reducing Mutans Streptococci levels in caregivers may reduce transmission to their children and lead to reduced caries prevalence. J Evi-Based Dent Pract 2011;11:27-8.
Domejean S, Zhan L, Denbesten PK, Stamper J, Boyce WT, Featherstone JD. Horizontal transmission of Mutans Streptococci in children. J Dent Res 2010;89:51-5.
Krzysciak W, Jurczak A, Koscielniak D, Bystrowska B, Skalniak A. The virulence of Streptococcus mutans and the ability to form biofilms. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;33(4):499-515.
Crielaard W, Zaura E, Schuller AA, Huse SM, Montijn RC, Keijser BF. Exploring the oral microbiota of children at various developmental stages of their dentition in the relation to their oral health. BMC Med Genomics 2011;4:22.
Luo AH, Yang DQ, Xin BC, Paster BJ, Qin J. Microbial profiles in saliva from children with and without caries in mixed dentition. Oral Dis 2012
Saxena D, Caufield PW, Li Y, Brown S, Song J, Norman R. Genetic classification of severe early childhood caries using subtracted DNA fragments from Streptococcus mutans. J Clin Microbiol 2008;46: 2868-73.
Banas JA, Miller JD, Fuschino ME, Hazlett KO, Toyofuku W, Porter KA, Reutzer SB, Florczyk MA, McDonough KA, Michalek SM. Evidence that accumulation of mutans in a biofilm reflects natural selection rather than stress-induced adaptive mutation. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007;73(1): 357-61.
The submission of originals to Odonto Ciência implies the transfer by the authors of the right for publication. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication. If the authors wish to include the same data into another publication, they must cite Odonto Ciência as the site of original publication.
CREATIVE COMMONS LICENSE
As this journal is open access, the articles are allowed free use in scientific and educational applications, with citation of the source.
According to the type of Creative Commons License (CC-BY 4.0) adopted by Odonto Ciência, the user must respect the requirements below.
You are free to:
Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
However, only under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests Odonto Ciência endorses you or your use.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
For more details on the Creative Commons license, please follow the link in the footer of this website.