Sex estimation study in skulls from Brazil’s southeastern population using Physical Anthropology and DNA

  • Suzana Papile Maciel Carvalho Faculdade de Odontologia de São Paulo
  • Liz Magalhães Brito Faculdade de Odontologia de São Paulo
  • Luiz Airton Saavedra de Paiva Faculdade de Odontologia de São Paulo
  • Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro Bicudo Faculdade de Odontologia de São Paulo
  • Richard Richard Juntz Faculdade de Odontologia de São Paulo
  • Rogério Nogueira de Oliveira Faculdade de Odontologia de São Paulo
Keywords: Physical Anthropology, DNA, Molecular Biology, Sex characteristics, Sex differentiation


OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the sex in human craniums using methodologies of Physical Anthropology, quantitative (Forensic Data Anthropology Bank, FDB, 1986) and one qualitative (Walker, 2008) and genetic analysis by amelogenin.
METHODS: The sample was composed of 66 skulls (34 males and 32 females) from the Center for Study and Research in Forensic Science, Guarulhos, SP. The methodologies were applied by two researchers who were unaware of the cranium’s sexes. For the statistical analysis, there were performed descriptive analysis, average, standard deviation, linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression.
RESULTS: The qualitative methodology presented an accuracy of 89.52%. For the DNA, it was possible to determine the sex in 86.15% of the sample. Analyzing the results for each skull in three different methodologies, we reached 100% correct.
CONCLUSION: As a result of this study, it is recommended that physical anthropology be the chosen method if it presents good accuracy when applied to different populations or if it is validated for the analyzed population. Otherwise, genetic analysis should be used for the determination of the sex.


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