Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need among 12 to 13 year-old in Brazilian schoolchildren

  • Fabio R. Tessarolo Lutheran University of Brazil
  • Carlos A. Feldens Lutheran University of Brazil
  • Caroline Dias Lutheran University of Brazil
  • Luciane Q. Closs Lutheran University of Brazil
Keywords: Epidemiology, Malocclusion, Orthodontics.

Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of the orthodontic treatment need in Brazilian adolescents by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), investigate associations between DAI scores and demographic and socioeconomic variables, and identify the components of the DAI that primarily contribute to the severity of malocclusion.
Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the public schools of Balneário Camboriú, Brazil; the study sample comprised 704 adolescents aged 12-13 years without history of orthodontic treatment. Malocclusion was assessed by a trained and calibrated orthodontist using the DAI.
Results: Of the schoolchildren, 58.7% had no malocclusion, 24.0% had definite malocclusion, 10.9% had severe malocclusion, and 6.4% had handicapping malocclusion. Approximately 17% of the sample (95% confidence interval: 14.5-20.1) required orthodontic treatment. Anterior maxillary overjet (r=0.627), anteroposterior molar relationship (r=0.590), irregularity in the maxilla (r=0.345), irregularity in the mandible (r=0.332), and crowding in the incisal segments (r=0.305) were the DAI components that primarily contributed to the variations in DAI scores.
Conclusion: Almost one-fifth of the sample required orthodontic treatment. Maxillary overjet and molar relationship represent the characteristics that primarily influenced the need for orthodontic treatment in the study population.

References

Jenny J, Cons NC. Establishing malocclusion severity levels on the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) scale. Aust Dent J. 1996; Feb;41(1):43-6.

Estioko LJ, Wright FA, Morgan MV. Orthodontic treatment need of secondary schoolchildren in Heidelberg, Victoria: an epidemiologic study using the Dental Aesthetic Index. Community Dent Health. 1994; Sep;11(3):147-51.

Beglin FM, Firestone AR, Vig KW, Beck FM, Kuthy RA, Wade D. A comparison of the reliability and validity of 3 occlusal indexes of orthodontic treatment need. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2001; Sep;120(3):240-6. Review.

Abdullah MS, Rock WP. Assessment of orthodontic treatment need in 5,112 Malaysian children using the IOTN and DAI indices. Community Dent Health. 2001; Dec;18(4):242-8.

World Health Organization (1997): Oral Health Surveys. Basic Methods, 4th edn. Geneva: WHO.

Cons NC, Jenny J, Kohout FJ. DAI: The Dental Aesthetic Index. Iowa City: College of Dentistry, University of Iowa (1986).

Nelson S, Armogan V, Abel Y, Broadbent BH, Hans M. Disparity in orthodontic utilization and treatment need among high school students. J Public Health Dent. 2004; 64(1):26-30.

Shivakumar KM, Chandu GN, Subba Reddy VV, Shafiulla MD. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among middle and high school children of Davangere city, India by using Dental Aesthetic Index. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2009; Oct-Dec;27(4):211-8.

Otuyemi OD, Ogunyinka A, Dosumu O, Cons NC, Jenny J. Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need of secondary school students in Nigeria according to the dental aesthetic index (DAI). Int Dent J. 1999; Aug;49(4):203-10.

Esa R, Razak IA, Allister JH. Epidemiology of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need of 12-13-year-old Malaysian schoolchildren. Community Dent Health. 2001; Mar;18(1):31-6.

Baca-Garcia A, Bravo M, Baca P, Baca A, Junco P. Malocclusions and orthodontic treatment needs in a group of Spanish adolescents using the Dental Aesthetic Index. Int Dent J. 2004; Jun;54(3):138-42.

Frazão P, Narvai PC. Socio-environmental factors associated with dental occlusion in adolescents. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2006; Jun;129(6):809-16.

Agou S, Locker D, Streiner DL, Tompson B. Impact of self-esteem on the oral-health-related quality of life of children with malocclusion. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008; Oct;134(4):484-9.

Johnson M, Harkness M. Prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need in 10-year-old New Zealand children. Aust Orthod J. 2000; Mar;16(1):1-8.

Onyeaso CO. Orthodontic treatment need of Nigerian outpatients assessed with the Dental Aesthetic Index. Aust Orthod J. 2004; May;20(1):19-23.

Bernabé E, Flores-Mir C. Orthodontic treatment need in Peruvian young adults evaluated through dental aesthetic index. Angle Orthod. 2006; May;76(3):417-21.

Brasil, Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde, Departamento de Atenção Básica, Coordenação Nacional de Saúde Bucal. Projeto SB Brasil 2003—Condições de saúde bucal da população brasileira 2002–2003: resultados principais. Brasília: MS-CNSB; 2004.

Cardoso CF, Drummond AF, Lages EM, Pretti H, Ferreira EF, Abreu MH. The dental aesthetic index and dental health component of the index of orthodontic treatment need as tools in epidemiological studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Aug;8(8):3277-86. Epub 2011 Aug 9.

Lima RB, Paiva AC, Farias AC, Lima KC. An analysis of reproducibility of DAI and IOTN indexes in a Brazilian scene. Cien Saude Colet. 2010; May;15(3):785-92.

Chen M, Andersen RM, Barmes DE, Leclerq M-H, Lyttle SC. Comparing oral health systems. A second international collaborative study. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1997.

Marques LS, Barbosa CC, Ramos-Jorge ML, Pordeus IA, Paiva SM. Malocclusion prevalence and orthodontic treatment need in 10-14-year-old schoolchildren in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a psychosocial focus. Cad. Saúde Pública Jul-ago. 2005; 21(4):1099-106.

Proffit WR, Fields HW, eds. Contemporary orthodontics. 3rd ed. St Louis, Mo: CV Mosby; 2000. 348 p.

Harris EF, Glassell BE. Sex differences in the uptake of orthodontic services among adolescents in the United States. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011; Oct;140(4):543-9.

Published
2015-07-06
Section
Original Article