Fluoride concentration and erosive potential of Brazilian concentrated natural fruit juices


  • Isabela Albuquerque Passos Farias Federal University of Paraíba
  • Dayane Franco Barros Mangueira Leite Federal University of Paraíba
  • Fábia Cunha Medeiros e Silva Federal University of Paraíba
  • Fábio Correia Sampaio Federal University of Paraíba
  • Ricardo Cavalcanti Duarte Federal University of Paraíba




Dental enamel, diet, fruit, fluoride, pH, tooth erosion.


Objective: To estimate the erosive potential of fruit juices consumed by a group of Brazilian children.
Methods: The study was carried out in two phases: Different fruit types were selected based on a dietary questionnaire applied to a random group of 40 patients’ mothers attending public pediatric services; the thirteen most cited fruits (acerola, orange, passion fruit, mango, cashew apple, grape, guava, soursop, pineapple, apple, lemon, tangerine and papaya) were purchased at local markets of João Pessoa, Northeast region of Brazil. The concentrated juices were prepared using a processor. The material was centrifuged for pH and fluoride measurements (in duplicate) using a pH electrode and an ion sensitive electrode, respectively. Comparisons of mean±SD were done by ANOVA and Schefé test.
Results: Acerola was the most cited fruit (n=24). The pH of the fruit juices varied from 2.21 (lemon) up to 5.52 (papaya) (p<0.01). Only papaya juice showed pH above 5.5. Fluoride concentrations varied from 0.04 (mango) up to 0.42 mg/L (lemon) (p>0.01).
Conclusions: The fluoride concentration was low for all fruits juices evaluated. Except for papaya, the majority of the concentrated fruits juices presented critical pH values indicating some erosive potential.

Author Biographies

Isabela Albuquerque Passos Farias, Federal University of Paraíba

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Federal University of Paraíba

Dayane Franco Barros Mangueira Leite, Federal University of Paraíba

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Federal University of Paraíba

Fábia Cunha Medeiros e Silva, Federal University of Paraíba

Technical School of Health, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Paraíba

Fábio Correia Sampaio, Federal University of Paraíba

Department of Clinic and Community Dentistry, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Paraíba

Ricardo Cavalcanti Duarte, Federal University of Paraíba

Adjunt Professor, Department of Clinic and Community Dentistry, Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Paraíba


Dennison BA, Rockwell HL, Baker SL: Excess fruit juice consumption by preschool-aged children is associated with short stature and obesity. Pediatrics. 1997;99:15-22.

Soares LMV, Shishido K, Moares AM, Moreira VA: Mineral composition of Brazilian concentrated fruit juices. Cienc Tecnologia de Aliment. 2004;24: 202-06.

Wang YC, Bleich SN, Gortmaker SL: Increasing caloric contribution from sugar-sweetened beverages and 100% fruit juices among US children and adolescents, 1988-2004. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e1604-14.

Banan LK, Hegde AM: Plaque and salivary pH changes after consumption of fresh fruit juices. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2005;30:9-13.

Lim S, Sohn W, Burt BA: Cariogenicity of soft drinks, milk and fruit juice in low-income african-american children: a longitudinal study. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139:959-67; quiz 95.

West NX, Maxwell A, Hughes JA: A method to measure clinical erosion: the effect of orange juice consumption on erosion of enamel. J Dent. 1998;26:329-35.

Shaw L, O‘Sullivan E UK: National Clinical Guidelines in Paediatric Dentistry. Diagnosis and prevention of dental erosion in children. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2000;10:356-65.

Zero DT, Lussi A: Erosion-chemical and biological factors of importance to the dental practitioner. Int Dent J. 2005;55:285-90.

Lussi A, Jaeggi T, Zero D: The role of diet in the aetiology of dental erosion. Caries Res. 2004;38 Suppl 1:34-44.

Peres KG, Armenio MF, Peres MA, Traebert J, De Lacerda JT: Dental erosion in 12-year-old schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study in Southern Brazil. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2005;15:249-55.

Young A, Amaechi BT, Dugmore C: Current erosion indices--flawed or valid? Summary. Clin Oral Investig. 2008;2 Suppl 1:S59-63.

Auad S, Moynihan P: Diet and dental erosion. Quintessence Int. 2007; 38: 130-3.

Waterhouse PJ, Auad SM, Nunn JH, Steen IN, Moynihan PJ: Diet and dental erosion in young people in south-east Brazil. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2008;18(5):353-60.

Jaime PC, Machado FMS, Westphal MF, Monteiro CA: Nutritional education and fruit and vegetable intake: a randomized community trial. Rev Saude Publica. 2002;41:154-7.

Jensdottir T, Arnadottir IB, Thorsdottir I: Relationship between dental erosion, soft drink consumption, and gastroesophageal reflux among Icelanders. Clin Oral Investig. 2004;8:91-6.

Amaechi BT, Higham SM: Eroded enamel lesion remineralization by saliva as a possible factor in the site-specificity of human dental erosion. Arch Oral Biol. 2001;46:697-703.

Larsen MJ, Nyvad B: Enamel erosion by some soft drinks and orange juices relative to their pH, buffering effect and contents of calcium phosphate. Caries Res. 1999;33: 81-7.

Souza SB, Szarfarc SC, Souza JPM: Feeding practices in the first year of life in children attending school health centers of the city of São Paulo, Brazil Rev Nutr. 1999;12:167-74.

Johansson AK, Sorvari R, Birkhed D, Meurman JH: Dental erosion in deciduous teeth--an in vivo and in vitro study. J Dent. 2001;29: 333-40.

Ganss C, Klimek J, Giese K: Dental erosion in children and adolescents- -a cross-sectional and longitudinal investigation using study models. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2001;29:264-71.

Hughes JA, West NX, Parker DM, van den Braak MH, Addy M: Effects of pH and concentration of citric, malic and lactic acids on enamel, in vitro. J Dent. 2000;28:147-52.

Aoba T: The effect of fluoride on apatite structure and growth. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 1997;8:136-53.

Tanaka M, Margolis HC: Release of mineral ions in dental plaque following acid production. Arch Oral Biol. 1999;44:253-8.

Lussi A, Jaeggi T: Erosion-diagnosis and risk factors. Clin Oral Investig. 2008;12 Suppl 1:S5-13.

Davis RE, Marshall TA, Qian F, Warren JJ, Wefel JS: In vitro protection against dental erosion afforded by commercially available, calciumfortified 100 percent juices. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138:1593-8; quiz 615.






Original Article