Enteroparasitosis in patients attended by the health public service: epidemiology and spatial distribution

Andressa Barros Ibiapina, Janaína Soares Leal, Pedro Ricardo Alves de Santana, Marcelo Ribeiro Mesquita, Tito Lívio da Cunha Lopes, Débora Cavalcante Braz

Abstract


AIMS: This research aims to determine the epidemiology and the spatial distribution of intestinal parasitosis in the city of Teresina.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out based on the data of parasitological fecal exams performed in the Laboratory Raul Bacelar between January, 2014 and July, 2017. In addition to the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and polyparasitism, we verified the association of these diseases with gender, zone and period of the year by means of the chi-squared test, whereas the relation with age was analyzed by the Mann-Kendall tests and multiple comparisons of age classes. The spatial distribution was performed using the QGIS georeferencing software.

RESULTS: The prevalence of enteroparasitosis in Teresina is 17,8% with Ascaris lumbricoides being the most common species, due to the precarious sanitary conditions of the city. The prevalence of individuals with polyparasitism is 3,13%, in which an association between the species Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was found. There was no relation between intestinal parasitosis with gender, but we verified that individuals in rural areas are more susceptible to these diseases. The species Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar occur more frequently in the first and second semester, respectively. We observed that there is an apparent tendency to increase cases of E. histolytica/dispar and reduction of cases of Giardia sp. according to aging. Mapping intestinal parasitosis showed us that there is a prevalence between one and 20% in most of Teresina's neighborhoods, and Ascariasis embodies at least 40% of cases of enteroparasitosis in these neighborhoods.

CONCLUSIONS: Investments in basic sanitation and new epidemiological investigations must be carried out to control intestinal parasitosis in Teresina, emphasizing that children and the elderly should be considered priority groups in these programs.


Keywords


epidemiology; geographic mapping; helminthiasis; neglected diseases; parasitic diseases; sanitation.

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1980-6108.2020.1.34764

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