Attainment speed in attention and memory tasks: test validation as a functional indicator in the geriatric population

Marlene Cristina Neves Rosa, Miguel Pires, Daniana Michelle

Abstract


AIM: To validate the reaching speed during attention and memory tasks as a functional indicator in the geriatric population.
METHODS: Institutionalized elderly living in 4 Portuguese institutions were characterized by their functional profile, with the following variables: (i) cognition; (ii) independence in basic daily living activities; (iii) independence in instrumental activities of daily living; (iii) grip strength, (iv) diagnosis of depression; (v) upper limb sensorimotor function; (vi) executive functions. All these instruments underwent a linking process with the International Classification of Functioning and Health. The sample was divided into four functional groups considering the values below and above the mean range of reaching speed in attention tasks (Group 1 - G1, Group 2 - G2) and the range of RS in memory tasks (Group 3 - G3, Group 4 - G4). Characterization of the sample groups was performed using descriptive statistical measures of the ICF
qualifiers and the difference between groups (G1 / G2 and G3 / G4) was tested using t-tests for independent samples.
RESULTS: The results showed significant differences between low- and high profile groups in RS tasks (p <0.05), identifying the following priority intervention areas in institutionalized elderly: d6. Domestic life, d1. Learning and knowledge application, d4. Mobility, d5. Self-care and d8. Significant areas of life. Older adults with reaching speed in attention tasks <0.06m/s or <0.07m/s in memory tasks tend to have moderate to severe disability in Mobility and Self Care and severe/complete inability to participate in Household tasks.
CONCLUSION: This study was an important contribution to the validation of reaching speed (a test for upper limb function) during attention and memory tasks as a functional indicator, enabling elderly functional evaluation in a large spectrum, including non-ambulate elderly people.


Keywords


International Classification of Functioning; Disability and Health; elderly; attention; memory.

References


World Health Oganisation. Global health and ageing. Geneva: WHO; 2015.

Ferreira OGL, Maciel SC, Costa SMG, Silva AO, Moreira MASP. Envelhecimento ativo e sua relação com a independência funcional. Texto Context – Enferm. 2012;21(3):513-8. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-07072012000300004

Imaginário C, Machado P, Antunes C, Martins T. Perfil funcional de los ancianos institucionalizados en residencias: estudio piloto. Gerokomos. 2018;29(2):59-64.

Zulkowski K, Kindsfater D. Examination of care-planning needs for elderly newly admitted to an acute care setting. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2000;46(1):32-8.

Lauretani F, Maggio M, Ticinesi A, Tana C, Prati B, Gionti L, Nouvenne A, Meschi T. Muscle weakness, cognitive impairment and their interaction on altered balance in elderly outpatients: results from the TRIP observational study. Clin Interv Aging. 2018;13:1437-43. https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S165085

Mahoney FI, Barthel DW. Functional evaluation: The Barthel Index. Md State Med J. 1965;14:61-5. https://doi.org/10.1037/t02366-000

Lawton MP, Moss M, Fulcomer M, Kleban MH. A research and service oriented multilevel assessment instrument. J Gerontol. 1982;37(1):91-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronj/37.1.91

Hutchings L, Fox R, Chesser T. Proximal femoral fractures in the elderly: How are we measuring outcome? Injury. 2011;42(11):1205-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2010.12.016

Iconaru EI, Ciucurel MM, Georgescu L, Ciucurel C. Hand grip strength as a physical biomarker of aging from the perspective of a Fibonacci mathematical modeling. BMC Geriatr. 2018;18:296-304. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-018-0991-0

Novo A, Preto L, Mendes E. A força de preensão manual como indicador da capacidade funcional em idosos. 1º Congresso de Cuidados Continuados; 28-29 set. 2012; Bragança, Portugal. Bragança: IPB; 2012.

Berg K, Wood-Dauphine S, Williams JI, Gayton D. Measuring balance in the elderly: preliminary development of an instrument. Physiother Canada. 1989;41(6):304-11. https://doi.org/10.3138/ptc.41.6.304

Berg K, Wood-Dauphinee S, Williams JI. The Balance Scale: reliability assessment with elderly residents and patients with an acute stroke. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1995;27(1):27-36.

Rodrigues RMC, Silva CFR, Loureiro LMJ, Silva SMDT, Crespo SSS, Azeredo ZAS. Os muito idosos: avaliação funcional multidimensional. Rev Enf Ref. 2015;(5):65-74. https://doi.org/10.12707/RIV14040

Alcazar J, Rodriguez-Lopez C, Ara I, Alfaro-Acha A, Mañas-Bote A, Guadalupe-Grau A, García-García FJ, Alegre LM. The force-velocity relationship in older people: reliability and validity of a systematic procedure. Int J Sport Med. 2017;38(14):1097-1104. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0043-119880

Wolf SL, Catlin PA, Gage K, Gurucharri K, Robertson R, Stephen K. Establishing the reliability and validity of measurements of walking time using the emory functional ambulation profile. Phys Ther. 1999;79(12):1122-33.

Alencar MA, Dias JMD, Figueiredo LC, Dias RC. Força de preensão palmar em idosos com demência: estudo da confiabilidade. Rev Bras Fisioter. 2012;16(6):510-4. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-35552012005000059

Osoba MY, Rao AK, Agrawal SK, Lalwani AK. Balance and gait in the elderly: a contemporary review. Laryngoscope Investig Otolaryngol. 2019;4(1):143-53. https://doi.org/10.1002/lio2.252

Umakalyani K, Senthil Kumar M. An observational study of gait speed in elderly participants attending outpatient clinic geriatric department, Madras Medical College, Chennai. J Evol Med Dent Sci. 2018;7(11):1356-9. https://doi.org/10.14260/jemds/2018/308

Rosa M, Amado S, Morouço P, Faria P, Batista R, Silva D. AGILidades. 604143/42PT; 2018.

Rosa MDD, Pires M, Ferreira L, Canaverde MJ, Martins N, Guardado J. Sensory-motor extremity function in institutionalised eldelry people: role of emotional and cognitive status. Thomson Reuteurs, Ageing Congress; 2019.

Pimentel AMF. Função cognitiva e fatores associados numa amostra representativa de idosos Portugueses na comunidade: resultados do Projeto Nutrition UP 65 [dissertação]. Porto: Universidade do Porto; 2017.

Adedoyin RA, Ogundapo FA, Mbada CE, Adekanla BA, Johnson OE, Onigbinde TA, Emechete AAI. Reference values for handgrip strength among healthy adults in Nigeria. Hong Kong Physiother J. 2009;27(1):21-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1013-7025[10]70005-1

Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. Mini-mental state: a grading the cognitive state of patiens for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res. 1975;12(3):189-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956[75]90026-6

Brucki SMD, Mansur LL, Carthery-Goulart MT, Nitrini R. Formal education, health literacy and mini-mental state examination. Dement Neuropsychol. 2011;5(1):26-30. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642011DN05010005

Veríssimo MT. Avaliação diagnóstica dos síndromes demenciais: escala de depressão geriátrica. Porto: Universida do Porto; 1988.

Sequeira C. Cuidar de idosos dependentes. Coimbra: Quarteto Editora; 2007.

Dubois B, Slachevsky A, Litvan I, Pillon B. The FAB: a frontal assessment battery at bedside. Neurology. 2000;55(11):1621-6. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.55.11.1621

Fugl-Meyer AR, Jääskö L, Leyman I, Olsson S, Steglind S. The post-stroke hemiplegic patient. 1. a method for evaluation of physical performance. Scand J Rehabil Med. 1975;7(1):13-31.

Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist. 1969;9(3):179-86. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/9.3_Part_1.179

Tomandl J, Book S, Gotthardt S, Heinmueller S, Graessel E, Freiberger E, Kuehlein T, Hueber S, Hoyer S. Laying the foundation for a core set of the International classification of functioning, disability and health for community-dwelling adults aged 75 years and above in general practice: a study protocol. BMJ Open. 2018;8(8): e024274. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-024274

Cieza A, Geyh S, Chatterji S, Kostanjsek N, Üstün B, Stucki G. ICF linking rules: an update based on lessons learned. J Rehabil Med. 2005;37(4):212-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/16501970510040263

Cieza A, Fayed N, Bickenbach J, Prodinger B. Refinements of the ICF linking rules to strengthen their potential for establishing comparability of health information. Disabil Rehabil. 2019;41(5):574-83. https://doi.org/10.3109/09638288.2016.1145258

Cornelis E, Gorus E, Beyer I, Bautmans I, De Vriendt P. Early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia through basic and instrumental activities of daily living: development of a new evaluation tool. PLoS Med. 2017;14(3):e1002250. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002250

Velstra I-M. Advanced insights in upper limb function of individuals with cervical spinal cord injury. Enschede: Amsterdam; 2015.

Federici A, Conteduca BR, Lucertini F, Dell’Anna S, Marini CF, Vetri M. Effect of a psychomotor training program on hand function in nursing home residents: a pilot study. J Phys Educ Sport. 2018;18(2):627-31.

Pamoukdjian F, Paillaud E, Zelek L, Laurent M, Lévy V, Landre T, Sebbane G. Measurement of gait speed in older adults to identify complications associated with frailty: a systematic review. J Geriatr Oncol. 2015;6(6):484-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2015.08.006

Kannegieter LM, Tap L, Oudshoorn C, van Bruchem-Visser RL, Mattace-Raso FUS. Mobility and handgrip strength but not aortic stiffness are associated with frailty in the elderly. J Gerontol Geriatr [Internet]. 2016;64:2-8.

Nourhashémi F, Andrieu S, Gillette-Guyonnet S, Vellas B, Albarède JL, Grandjean H. Instrumental activities of daily living as a potential marker of frailty: a study of 7364 community-dwelling elderly women (the EPIDOS Study). J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2001;56(7):M448-53. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/56.7.M448

Jakobsson U, Karlsson S. Predicting mortality with the ADL-staircase in frail elderly. Phys Occup Ther Geriatr. 2011;29(2):136-47. https://doi.org/10.3109/02703181.2010.538491

de Moura L, dos Santos WR, Castro SS, Ito E, da Luz e Silva DC, Yokota RTC, Abaakouk Z, Corrêa Filho HR, Gomes Pérez MA, Fellinghauer CS, Sabariego C. Applying the ICF linking rules to compare population-based data from different sources: an exemplary analysis of tools used to collect information on disability. Disabil Rehabil. 2019;41(5):601-12. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638288.2017.1370734

Veloso LSG, Freire BHF, Veloso JAP, Gouveia MLA, Colella TLA, Moreira MASP. Analysis of the functional performance of self-institutionalized elderly people. Fundam Care. 2018;10(4):1176-81. https://doi.org/10.9789/2175-5361.2018.v10i4.1176-1181

Jeon Y-H, Tudball J, Nelson K. How do residents of aged care homes perceive physical activity and functional independence? A qualitative study. Health Soc Care Community. 2019;27(5):1321-32. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12777

Walter CS, Hengge CR, Lindauer BE, Schaefer SY. Declines in motor transfer following upper extremity task-specific training in older adults. Exp Gerontol. 2019;116:14-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2018.12.012

Mugo JW, Onywera VO, Waudo JN, Otieno OG. Functionality of elderly persons: a comparison between institutionalized and non – institutionalized elderly persons in Nairobi City County, in Kenya. World J Public Heal. 2018;3(1):9-15. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.wjph.20180301.12




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1980-6108.2019.3.34231

This journal is a member of COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) and follow the principles recommended by this international reference organization on integrity and ethics in scientific publication.

Licença Creative Commons
Except where otherwise noted, the material published in this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original publication is properly cited.
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.

 
 Member of OASPA

Copyright: © 2006-2019 EDIPUCRS