Alguns pensamentos sobre a biolinguística

Cedrix Boeckx


Retratos ingênuos da biologia da linguagem são incapazes de tratar a real complexidade observada por biólogos em todos os níveis de análise, e consequentemente não nos conduzam mais próximos de um relato preciso sobre a natureza da linguagem humana e da mente humana. O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar que se se propõe a realizar uma biolinguística efetiva, então deveríamos ser compelidos a ir além destes relatos.


Biolinguística. Linguagem humana. Mente humana. Genoma humano. Biologia.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


ANDERSON, S. R.; LIGHTFOOT, D. W. “The human language faculty as an organ”. Annu. Rev. Physiol., 62 (1999), p. 697-722.

BALABAN, E. “Cognitive developmental biology: history, process and fortune’s wheel”. Cognition, 101 (2006), p. 298-332.

BALARI, S.; BENÍTEZ-BURRACO, A.; LONGA V. M.; LORENZO G. “The fossils of language: What are they, who has them, how did they evolve?” In: C. BOECKX & K. K. GROHMANN (eds.). The Cambridge Handbook of Biolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 489-523.

BATES, E.; BRETHERTON, I.; SNYDER, L. From First Words to Grammar: Individual Differences and Dissociable Mechanisms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

BENÍTEZ-BURRACO, A. Genes y lenguaje: aspectos ontogenéticos, filogenéticos y cognitivos [Genes and Language: Ontogenetic, Phylogenetic, and Cognitive Concerns]. Barcelona: Reverté, 2009.

BENÍTEZ-BURRACO, A. “Problematic aspects of the genetic analysis of the specific disorders of the language: FOXP2 as paradigm”. Neurologia, 27 (2012), p. 225-233.

BERWICK, R. C.; OKANOYA, K.; BECKERS, G. J. L.; BOLHUI, J. J. “Songs to syntax: the linguistics of birdsong”. Trends Cogn. Sci., 15 (2011), p. 115-121.

BOECKX, C. “Biolinguistics: Forays into human cognitive biology”. J. Anthropol. Sci., 91 (2013). doi: 10.4436/JASS.91009.

BREUKER, C. J.; DEBAT, V.; KLINGENBERG, C. P. “Functional evo-devo”. Trends Ecol. Evol., 21 (2006), p. 488-492.

CARROLL, S. B. Endless Forms Most Beautiful. The New Science of Evo Devo. New York: Norton & Company, 2005.

CÄSAR, C.; Byrne, R. W.; HOPPITT, W.; Young, R. J.; ZUBERBÜHLER, K. “Evidence for semantic communication in titi monkey alarm calls”. Anim. Behav., 84 (2013), p. 405-411.

CHENEY, D. L.; SEYFARTH, R. M. How Monkeys See the World. Inside the Mind of Another Species. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.

CHOMSKY, N. A. Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origin and Use. New York: Prager, 1986.

d’ERRICO, F.; HENSHILWOOD, C.; LAWSON, G.; VANHAEREN, M.; TILLIER, A.-M.; SORESSI, M.; BRESSON, F.; MAUREILLE, B.; NOWELL, A.; LAKARRA, J.; BACKWELL, L.; JULIEN, M. “Archeological evidence for the emergence of language, symbolism, and music – An alternative multidisciplinary perspective”. J. World Prehist., 17 (2003), p. 1-70.

DEHAENE, S.; DUPOUX, E.; MEHLER, J.; COHEN, L.; PAULESU, E.; PERANI, D.; van de MOORTELE, P. F.; LEHÉRICY, S.; Le BIHAN, D. “Anatomical variability in the cortical representation of first and second language”. Neuroreport, 8 (1997), p. 3809-3815.

ECO, U. A Theory of Semiotics (Advances in Semiotics). Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976.

EMMOREY, K.; MCCULLOUGH, S. “The bimodal bilingual brain: effects of sign language experience”. Brain Lang, 109 (2009), p. 124-132.

ENARD, W. “FOXP2 and the role of cortico-basal ganglia circuits in speech and language evolution”. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 21 (2011), p. 415-424.

FALCARO, M.; PICKLES, A.; NEWBURY, D. F.; ADDIS, L.; BANFIELD, E.; FISHER, S. E.; MONACO, A. P.; SIMKIN, Z.; CONTI-RAMSDEN, G.; SLI Consortium. “Genetic and phenotypic effects of phonological short-term memory and grammatical morphology in specific language impairment”. Genes Brain Behav., 7 (2008), p. 393-402.

FEDORENKO, E.; KANWISHER, N. “Neuroimaging of language: Why hasn’t a clearer picture emerged?” Lang. Linguist Compass, 3 (2009), p. 839-865.

FEDORENKO, E.; BEHR, M. K.; KANWISHER, N. “Functional specificity for high-level linguistic processing in the human brain”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 108 (2011), p. 16428-16433.

FENSON, L.; BATES, E.; DALE, P.; GOODMAN, J.; REZNICK, J. S.; THAL, D. “Measuring variability in early child language: Don’t shoot the messenger”. Child Dev., 71 (2000), p. 323-328.

FISHER, S. E.; SCHARFF, C. “FOXP2 as a molecular window into speech and language”. Trends Genet., 25 (2009), p. 166-177.

GIBSON, C. J.; GRUEN, J. R. “The human lexinome: genes of language and reading”. J. Commun. Disord., 41 (2008), p. 409-420.

GRAHAM, S. A.; FISHER, S. E. “Decoding the genetics of speech and language”. Curr Opin. Neurobiol., 23 (2013), p. 43-51.

GRAYBIEL, A. M. “Building action repertoires: memory and learning functions of the basal ganglia”. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 5 (1995), p. 733-741.

GRIFFITHS, P. E. “Evo-Devo meets the mind: towards a developmental evolutionary psychology”. In: BRANDON, R.; SANSOM, R. (Eds.). Integrating Evolution and Development: Form Theory to Practice. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007, p. 195-225.

GRIFFITHS, P. E.; GRAY, R. D. “The developmental systems perspective: organismenvironment systems as units of evolution”. In: PRESTON, K.; PIGLIUCCI, M. (Eds.). Phenotypic Integration: Studying the Ecology and Evolution of Complex Phenotypes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 409-431.

GRODZINSKY, Y. “The picture of the linguistic brain: how sharp can it be? Reply to Fedorenko & Kanwisher”. Lang. Linguist Compass, 4 (2010), p. 605-622.

GUSELLA, J. F.; MACDONALD, M. E. “Huntington’s disease: seeing the pathogenic process through a genetic lens”. Trends Biochem. Sci., 31 (2006), p. 533-540.

HANCOCK, R.; BEVER, T. G. “Genetic factors and normal variation in the organization of language”. Biolinguistics, 7 (2013), p. 75-95.

HOLLOWAY, R. L. “Human paleontological evidence relevant to language behaviour”. Hum. Neurobiol., 2 (1983), p. 105-114.

KARMILOFF-SMITH, A. “Nativism versus neuroconstructivism: rethinking the study of developmental disorders”. Dev. Psychol., 45 (2009), p. 56-63.

KARMILOFF-SMITH, A. “A developmental perspective on modularity”. In: GLATZEDER, B. M.; GOEL, V.; von MÜLLER, A. (Eds.). Towards a Theory of Thinking. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2010, p. 179-187.

KITANO, H. “Biological robustness”. Nature Rev. Genet., 5 (2004), p. 826-837.

KRAUSE, J.; LALUEZA-FOX, C.; ORLANDO, L.; ENARD, W.; GREEN, R. E.;, BURBANO, H. A.; HUBLIN, J. J.; HÄNNI, C.; FORTEA, J.; de la RASILLA, M.; BERTRANPETIT, J.; ROSAS, A.; PÄÄBO, S. “The derived FOXP2 variant of modern humans was shared with Neandertals”. Curr. Biol., 17 (2007), p. 1908-1912.

KURT, S.; FISHER, S. E.; EHRET, G. “Foxp2 mutations impair auditory motor association learning”. PLoS One, 7 (2012), e33130.

LAI, C. S.; FISHER, S. E.; HURST, J. A.; VARGHA-KHADEM, F.; MONACO, A. P. “A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder”. Nature, 413 (2001), p. 519-523.

LENNEBERG, E. Biological foundations of language. New York: Wiley, 1967.

LIGHTFOOT, D. The Development of Language. Acquisition, Change, and Evolution. Oxford, Malden: Blackwell, 1999.

LINEBARGER, M. C. “Agrammatism as evidence about grammar”. Brain Lang, 50 (1995), p. 52-91.

LOVE, A. C. “Functional homology and homology of function: Biological concepts and philosophical consequences”. Biol. Philos., 22 (2007), p. 691-708.

MARTÍNEZ, I.; ROSA, M.; ARSUAGA, J. L.; JARABO, P.; QUAM, R.; LORENZO, C.; GRACIA, A.; CARRETERO, J. M.; BERMÚDEZ de CASTRO, J. M.; CARBONELL, E. “Auditory capacities in Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain”. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101 (2004), p. 9976-9981.

MELLARS, P. The impossible coincidence. A single-species model for the origins of modern human behavior. Evol. Anthropol., 14 (2005), p. 12-27.

MITHEN, S. The Singing Neanderthals. The Origins of Music, Language, Mind and Body. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson, 2006.

MÜLLER, G. B.; NEWMAN, S. A. (Eds.). “Evolutionary innovation and morphological novelty”. J. Exp. Zool. B Mol. Dev. Evol., 304 (2005), p. 485-486.

OYAMA, S.; GRIFFITHS, P. E.; GRAY, R. D. (Eds.). Cycles of Contingencies: Developmental Systems and Evolution. [s.l.]: MIT Press, 2001.

PADOVANI, A.; COSSEDDU, M.; PREMI, E.; ARCHETTI, S.; PAPETTI, A.; AGOSTI, C.; BIGNI, B.; CERINI, C.; PAGHERA, B.; BELLELLI, G.; BORRONI, B. “The speech and language FOXP2 gene modulates the phenotype of frontotemporal lobar degeneration”. J. Alzheimers Dis., 22 (2010), p. 923-931.

PIATELLI-PALMARINI, M.; URIAGEREKA, J. “A geneticist’s dream, a linguist’s nightmare: The case of FOXP2”. In: Di SCIULLO, A. M.; BOECKX, C. (Eds.). The Biolinguistic Enterprise. New Perspectives on the Evolution and Nature of the Human Language Faculty. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 100-125.

PINKER, S.; BLOOM, P. “Natural language and natural selection”. Behav. Brain Sci., 13 (1990), p. 707-784.

POEPPEL, D. “The maps problem and the mapping problem: two challenges for a cognitive neuroscience of speech and language”. Cogn. Neuropsychol., 29 (2012), p. 34-55.

POEPPEL, D.; EMBICK, D. “Defining the relation between linguistics and neuroscience”. In: CUTLER, A. (Ed.). Twenty-first Century Psycholinguistics: Four Cornerstones. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005, p. 103-120.

PRAT, C. S.; JUST, M. A. “Exploring the neural dynamics underpinning individual differences in sentence comprehension”. Cereb. Cortex, 21 (2011), p. 1747-1760.

RAMUS, F.; ROSEN, S.; DAKIN, S. C.; DAY, B. L.; CASTELLOTE, J. M.; WHITE, S.; FRITH, U. “Theories of developmental dyslexia: insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults”. Brain, 126 (2003), p. 841-865.

SHAYWITZ, S. E.; SHAYWITZ, B. A.; PUGH, K. R.; FULBRIGHT, R. K.; CONSTABLE, R. T.; MENCL, W. E.; SHANKWEILER, D. P.; LIBERMAN, A. M.; SKUDLARSKI, P.; FLETCHER, J. M.; KATZ, L.; MARCHIONE, K. E.; LACADIE, C.; GATENBY, C.; GORE, J. C. “Functional disruption in the organization of the brain for reading in dyslexia”. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 95 (1998), p. 2636-2641.

SHU, W.; YANG, H.; ZHANG, L.; LU, M. M.; MORRISEY, E. E. “Characterization of a new subfamily of wingedhelix/forkhead (Fox) genes that are expressed in the lung and act as transcriptional repressors”. J. Biol. Chem., 276 (2001), p. 27488- 27497.

SILVERSTEIN, M. “Shifters, linguistic categories, and cultural description”. In: BASSO, K. H.; SELBY, H. A. (Eds.). Meaning in Anthropology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1976, p. 11-55.

SIROIS, S.; SPRATLING, M.; THOMAS, M. S.; WESTERMANN, G.; MARESCHAL, D.; JOHNSON, M. H. “Précis of neuroconstructivism: how the brain constructs cognition”. Behav. Brain Sci., 31 (2008), p. 321-331.

SMITH, N. V.; TSIMPLI, I. M. The Mind of a Savant: Language-Learning and Modularity. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.

SORGER, B.; GOEBEL, R.; SCHILTZ, C.; ROSSION, B. “Understanding the functional neuroanatomy of acquired prosopagnosia”. Neuroimage, 35 (2007), p. 836-852.

STATE, M. W. “The erosion of phenotypic specificity in psychiatric genetics: emerging lessons from CNTNAP2”. Biol. Psychiatry, 69 (2011), p. 816-817.

TATTERSALL, I. Becoming Human: Evolution and Human Uniqueness. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1998.

THOMAS, M. S.; ANNAZ, D.; ANSARI, D.; SCERIF, G.; JARROLD, C.; KARMILOFFSMITH, A. “Using developmental trajectories to understand developmental disorders”. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res., 52 (2009), p. 336-358.

VARGHA-KHADEM, F.; WATKINS, K. E.; ALCOCK, K. J.; FLETCHER, P.; PASSINGHAM, R. E. “Praxic and nonverbal cognitive deficits in a large family with a genetically transmitted speech and language disorder”. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 92 (1995), p. 930-933.

WAGNER, G. P. “Homologues, natural kinds and the evolution of modularity”. Amer. Zool., 36 (1996), p. 36-43.

WAGNER, G. P.; ALTENBERG, L. “Complex adaptations and the evolution of evolvability”. Evolution, 50 (1996), p. 967-976.

WATKINS, K. E., DRONKERS, N. F. and VARGHA-KHADEM, F. “Behavioural analysis of an inherited speech and language disorder: comparison with acquired aphasia”. Brain, 125 (2002), p. 452-464.

WEST-EBERHARD, M. J. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution. Nueva York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

WEST-EBERHARD, M. J. “Developmental plasticity and the origin of species differences”. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 102 (2005), p. 6543-6549.

WEXLER, K. “Lenneberg’s dream: Learning, normal language development, and Specific Language Impairment”. In: Levy , Y.; Schaeffer, J. (Eds.). Language Competence across Populations. Toward a Definition of Specific Language Impairment. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003, p. 11-61.

WINTHER, R. G. “Varieties of modules: kinds, levels, origins, and behaviors”. J. Exp. Zool., 291 (2001), p. 116-129.

WYNN, T.; COOLIDGE, F. L. “The expert Neandertal mind”. J. Hum. Evol., 46 (2004), p. 467-487.

ZILLES, K.; AMUNTS, K. “Receptor mapping: architecture of the human cerebral cortex”. Curr. Opin. Neurol., 22 (2009), p. 331-339.


ISSN-L: 0042-3955

e-ISSN: 1984-6746

Veritas - Revista Quadrimestral de Filosofia da PUCRS

Este periódico é membro do COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) e adere aos princípios recomendados por essa organização de referência internacional em ética e integridade na publicação científica.http://www.publicationethics.orgbr>

Apoio Institucional – fev./dez. 2012 referente ao Edital MCTI/CNPq/MEC/CAPES Nº. 15/2011.


Licencia Creative Commons
Exceto onde especificado diferentemente, a matéria publicada neste periódico é licenciada sob forma de uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.


Políticas editoriales de revistas científicas brasileñas. Disponibilidad de depósito: Azul .

 Copyright: © 2006-2018 EDIPUCRS