Dietary consumption and metabolic syndrome in adolescents

Maíra Macário de Assis, Juliana Farias de Novaes, Ana Paula Carlos Cândido, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves Leite, Renata Maria Souza Oliveira

Abstract


DOI: 10.15448/1980-6108.2017.1.25496

Aims: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents and to compare the dietary intake of individuals with and without the syndrome.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with adolescents aged 15 to 17 years, enrolled in public and private schools in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Body mass index was used to determine the nutritional status, classified according to the World Health Organization. Waist circumference was measured according to Petroski (2003). Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and blood pressure were assessed and the International Diabetes Federation criteria were used for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. A non-consecutive 3-day food record was used for dietary assessment. The chi–square test, Fisher's exact test, Student’s parametric t test or the Mann-Whitney U test were used for associations between the groups.

Results: A total of 302 adolescents – 51.99% males and 73.51% from public schools – were evaluated. The prevalence of obesity was 27.48% and that of metabolic syndrome was 3.97%; 4.83% among girls and 3.18% among boys (p=0.46). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among public school students was 4.50% compared with 2.50% (p=0.73) among those from private schools. In the comparison between the groups with and without metabolic syndrome, there were no statistically significant differences in dietary energy and micronutrient adequacy, except for vitamin D (p=0.01). Adolescents with metabolic syndrome consumed less vitamin D than those without the syndrome.

Conclusions: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be relevant considering its complexity, severity, and the age group studied. Lower vitamin D intake was observed among adolescents with metabolic syndrome.


Keywords


metabolic syndrome X; adolescent; food consumption; risk factors.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1980-6108.2017.1.25496

e-ISSN: 1980-6108 | ISSN-L: 1806-5562


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