Factors involved between social support and self-efficacy in HIV-infected individuals

Wendel Mombaque dos Santos, Stela Maris de Mello Padoin, Tânia Solange B. de Souza Magnago, Graziele de Lima Dalmolin, Samuel Spierlberg Zuge

Abstract


Aims: To investigate the relationships between perceived social support received and expectation of self-efficacy.

Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted at the Outpatient Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Teaching Hospital of Santa Maria, southern Brazil, from January to July 2012 with adults on antiretroviral treatment for HIV. To collect the data, we applied an instrument which included: a sociodemographic and economic questionnaire, a self-efficacy expectation scale for antiretroviral treatment, and the scale for evaluation of social support. We used descriptive statistics, Spearman’s correlation, and multivariate logistic regression. Values equal to or less than 5% were considered to be of statistical significance.

Results: There was a correlation between emotional social support and expectation of self-efficacy. Total social support presented CD4+ T lymphocyte count  up to 50 cells/µL (odds ratio [OR] = 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.37) as a risk factor, and an income of less than 8,000 dollars per year (OR = 0.95; 95%CI = 0.91-0.99) as a protective factor. Four to seven years of schooling (OR = 0.94; 95%CI = 0.89-0.99), income of less than 8,000 dollars per year (OR = 0.91; 95%CI = 0.84-0.98), CD4+ T lymphocyte count up to 50 cells/µL (OR = 0.84; 95%CI = 0.77-0.92), viral load equal to or greater than 501 copies/mL (OR =0.91; 95%CI=0.87-0.95), and healthcare follow-up considered moderate (OR = 0.96; 95%CI = 0.92-0.99) or difficult (OR = 0.94; 95%CI = 0.89-0.99) were regarded as protective factors for self-efficacy.

Conclusions: Perceived social support is associated with expectation of self-efficacy. The data suggest that social support and expectation of self-efficacy, in addition to affecting the therapeutic response to treatment, may interfere with healthcare follow-up and act as a protective factor for sustained adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

Keywords


HIV infections; anti-retroviral agents; social support; self efficacy.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1980-6108.2015.2.21105

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