Working memory and intelligence quotient: Which best predicts on school achievement?

Gustavo Marcelino Siquara, Cassio dos Santos Lima, Neander Abreu

Resumo


Working memory (WM) refers to ability to store and manipulate information for a period of time. There is evidence of a close relationship between WM and learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between WM, intelligence quotient (IQ) on school achievement. Individual neuropsychological assessment was conducted following a specific protocol. The study included 227 children aged 7 to 12 years (M = 9.87, SD = 1.34), of which 119 were females, from private and public schools in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics. Academic achievement was evaluated using the Academic Performance Test (TDE), with subtests in reading, writing and arithmetic. The components of WM were evaluated using backward and forward Digit Span tasks and the backward and forward Corsi block-tapping task. The estimated IQ was assessed using tasks vocabularies and block design of the Wechsler scales. The statistical tests used were linear regression analysis (stepwise) and Pearson correlation. The results showed that the best predictors of academic performance were Digit Span Forward, Corsi Block Backward and Digit Span Backward task. The hypothesis of non-multicollinearity was tested, and it was verified that the constructs were independent (VIF < 10 and Tolerance > 0.20). The variance in academic performance explained by WM model was ΔR = 0.36. High and significant correlations were observed between the components of WM and the TDE. The WM score (Digit Span Backward + Corsi Block Backward) and the TDE were correlated (r = 0.54**). These results indicate that WM is a good predictor of academic achievement than IQ and are consistent with other findings showing WM as a predictor of learning or the potential for learning. This result has important implications for education, particularly with respect to intervention.

 

*** Memória de trabalho e quociente de inteligência: o que melhor prevê o desempenho escolar? ***

Memória de trabalho (MT) refere-se a capacidade de armazenar e manipular informações por um período de tempo. Há evidências de uma estreita relação entre MT e aprendizado. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a relação entre MT, quociente de inteligência (QI) no desempenho acadêmico. A avaliação neuropsicológica individual foi realizada seguindo um protocolo específico. O estudo incluiu 227 crianças com idades entre 7 a 12 anos (M = 9.87, SD = 1.34), das quais 119 eram do sexo feminino, de escolas privadas e públicas em Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. A análise de dados incluiu estatística descritiva e inferencial. O desempenho acadêmico foi avaliado usando o Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE), com subtestes de leitura, escrita e aritmética. Os componentes da MT foram avaliados usando tarefas de Span de Digitos e direta e inversa e a tarefa de Blocos de Corsi versão direta e inversa. O IQ estimado foi avaliado usando as tarefas de vocabulário e cubos das escalas Wechsler. Os testes estatísticos utilizados foram análise de regressão linear (enter) e correlação de Pearson. Os resultados mostraram que os melhores preditores de desempenho escolar foram as tarefas Digitos span direto, invertido e Cubos de Corsi direto e inverso. A hipótese de não-multicolinearidade foi testada, e verificou-se que os construtos foram independentes (VIF <10 e tolerância> 0,20). A variância no desempenho acadêmico explicado pelo modelo WM foi ΔR = 0,12. Correlações significativas foram observadas entre os componentes da MT e do TDE. O escore da MT (Dígito span do inverso + Corsi Block inverso) e o TDE foram correlacionados (r = 0,28 **). Estes resultados indicam que a MT é um bom preditor de realização escolar do que o QI e são consistentes com outros achados mostrando MT como um preditor de aprendizagem ou o potencial de aprendizagem. Este resultado tem implicações importantes para a educação, particularmente no que diz respeito à intervenção.

Palavras-chave: Memória de trabalho; Desempenho escolar; Função executiva; Gc; Quociente de inteligência (QI).


Palavras-chave


Working memory; Academic achievement; Executive function; Gc; Intelligence quotient (IQ).

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1980-8623.2018.4.27943

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