Breast cancer prevention: what women think about the illness, its risks and self-care

Carolina Ribeiro Seabra, Maria Júlia Armiliato, Luisa Vital, Paola Otaran, Ana Carolina Peuker, Elisa Kern de Castro

Resumo


Background: Early detection of breast cancer (BC) is important to reduce mortality rates. To prevent BC, women should adopt self-care behaviors. This study aimed at examining risk and illness perception and self-care of healthy women regarding breast cancer. Methods: Participants were 211 women (M = 59.11 years, SD = 8.54) and with no personal history of the illness, selected by convenience. Measures were a sociodemographic, clinical and health behavior questionnaire, illness perception and risk perception questionnaires. Nonparametric statistics (Spearman) was employed to analyze the relationship between illness perception, risk perception and sociodemographic variables. The open answers to the causes of the illness were classified according to the content analysis. Results: We found a relationship between risk and illness perception and self-care in healthy women regarding BC. It was identified that women had reasonable illness coherence (M = 3.18) and considered the illness more timeline chronic than timeline acute (M = 3.22), reasonable timeline cyclical (M = 3.56), with severe consequences for health (M = 4.22), and reasonably threatening (M = 3.15). Conclusions: BC and risk perception and self-care are interrelated variables among healthy women.

 

***Prevenção do cancer de mama: o que as mulheres pensam sobre a doença, seus riscos e autocuidado***

Introdução: A detecção precoce do câncer de mama (CM) é importante para reduzir as taxas de mortalidade. Para preveni-lo, a mulher deve adotar comportamentos de autocuidado em saúde. Esse estudo objetiva examinar a percepção de risco, a percepção da doença e o autocuidado de mulheres saudáveis com relação ao CM. Método: Participaram 211 mulheres (M = 59,11 anos; DP = 8,54) sem histórico de CM selecionados por conveniência. Os instrumentos foram questionário de dados sociodemográficos, clínicos e de
comportamento em saúde, questionários de percepção da doença e percepção de risco. Estatística não paramétrica (Spearman) foi utilizada para analisar a relação entre percepção da doença, percepção de risco e variáveis sociodemográficas. As respostas abertas sobre as causas da doença foram classificadas segundo análise de conteúdo. Resultados: Observou-se que existe relação entre a percepção de risco e da doença, e autocuidado em mulheres saudáveis. Identificou-se que as mulheres têm razoável percepção de entendimento da doença (M = 3.18), a consideravam mais crônica que aguda (M = 3.22), razoavelmente cíclica (M = 3,56), com consequências graves à saúde (M = 4,22), e relativamente ameaçadora (M = 3,15). Conclusões: A percepção do CM, a percepção de risco e o autocuidado são variáveis inter-relacionadas em mulheres saudáveis.

Palavras-chave: Neoplasias; Autorregulação; Câncer de mama; Autocuidado.


Palavras-chave


Neoplasms; Self-regulation; Breast cancer; Self-care.

Texto completo:

PDF (English)

Referências


American Cancer Society. (2015). Breast Cancer Prevention and Early Detection.

Anagnostopoulos, F., Dimitrakaki, C., Fitzsimmons, D., Potamianos, G., Niakas, D., & Tountas, Y. (2012). Health beliefs and illness perceptions as related to mammography uptake in randomly selected women in Greece. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 19(2), 147-164.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880-011-9272-1

Anagnostopoulos, F., & Spanea, E. (2005). Assessing illness representations of breast cancer: a comparison of patients with healthy and benign controls. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58(4), 327-34.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.09.011

Caleffi, M., Ribeiro, R. A., Bedin, A. J., Viegas-Butzke, J. M. P., Baldisserotto, F. D. G., Skonieski, G. P., Ashton-Prolla, P. (2010). Adherence to a breast cancer screening program and its predictors in underserved women in southern Brazil. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention : A Publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, Cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 19(10), 2673-9.

https://doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0338

Catania, C., Feroce, I., Barile, M., Goldhirsch, A., De Pas, T., de Braud, F., … Bonanni, B. (2016). Improved health perception after genetic counselling for women at high risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer: construction of new questionnaires--an Italian exploratory study. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, 142(3), 633-48.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00432-015-2062-7

Del Valle, M. O., Martin-Payo, R., Lana, A., Garcia, J. B., Folgueras, M. V., & Lopez, M. L. (2014). Behavioural cancer risk factors in women diagnosed with primary breast cancer. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(12), 2810-20.

https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.12433

DeSantis, C. E., Fedewa, S. A., Goding Sauer, A., Kramer, J. L., Smith, R. A., & Jemal, A. (2015). Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 66(1), 31-42.

https://doi.org/10.3322/caac.21320

Dey, S. (2014). Preventing breast cancer in LMICs via screening and/or early detection: The real and the surreal. World Journal of Clinical Oncology, 5(3), 509-19.

https://doi.org/10.5306/wjco.v5.i3.509

Fehniger, J., Livaudais-Toman, J., Karliner, L., Kerlikowske, K., Tice, J. A., Quinn, J., … Kaplan, C. P. (2014). Perceived versus objective breast cancer risk in diverse women. Journal of Women’s Health (2002), 23(5), 420-7.

https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2013.4516

Ferzoco, R. M., & Ruddy, K. J. (2016). The Epidemiology of Male Breast Cancer. Current Oncology Reports, 18(1), 1-6.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s11912-015-0487-4

Gibbons, A., & Groarke, A. (2016). Can risk and illness perceptions predict breast cancer worry in healthy women? Journal of Health Psychology, 21(9), 2052-62.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105315570984

Haber, G., Ahmed, N. U., & Pekovic, V. (2012). Family history of cancer and its association with breast cancer risk perception and repeat mammography. American Journal of Public Health, 102(12), 2322-9.

https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300786

Jones, S. C., Magee, C. A., Barrie, L. R., Iverson, D. C., Gregory, P., Hanks, E. L., … Zorbas, H. M. (2011). Australian women’s perceptions of breast cancer risk factors and the risk of developing breast cancer. Women’s Health Issues : Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women’s Health, 21(5), 353-60.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2011.02.004

Kaptein, A. A., Schoones, J. W., Fischer, M. J., Thong, M. S. Y., Kroep, J. R., & van der Hoeven, K. J. M. (2015). Illness Perceptions in Women with Breast Cancer-a Systematic Literature Review. Current Breast Cancer Reports, 7(3), 117-126.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12609-015-0187-y

Leventhal, H., Nerenz, D., Steele, D. (1984). Illness representations and coping with health threats. In Handbook of Psychology and Health (pp. 221–252). New York: Erlbaum.

Lizama, N., Rogers, P., Thomson, A., Slevin, T., Fritschi, L., Saunders, C., & Heyworth, J. (2016). Women’s beliefs about breast cancer causation in a breast cancer case-control study. Psycho-Oncology, 18, 1-7.

https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3869

Maass, S. W. M. C., Roorda, C., Berendsen, A. J., Verhaak, P. F. M., & de Bock, G. H. (2015). The prevalence of longterm symptoms of depression and anxiety after breast cancer treatment: A systematic review. Maturitas, 82(1), 100-8.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2015.04.010

Maria João Figueiras. (2014). Questionário de percepção de risco para cancro da mama. Instrumento não publicado.

McCorry, N. K., Dempster, M., Quinn, J., Hogg, A., Newell, J., Moore, M., … Kirk, S. J. (2013). Illness perception clusters at diagnosis predict psychological distress among women with breast cancer at 6 months post diagnosis. Psycho-Oncology, 22(3), 692-8.

https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.3054

Moss-Morris, R., Weinman, J., Petrie, K., Horne, R., Cameron, L., & Buick, D. (2002). The Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). Psychology & Health, 17(1), 1-16.

https://doi.org/10.1080/08870440290001494

Peuker, A. C. W. B., Armiliato, M. J., Souza, L. V., & Castro, E. K. (2016). Causal attribution among women with breast cancer. Psicologia: Reflexão E Crítica, 29(4), 2-6.

https://doi.org/10.1186/s41155-016-0007-y

Seabra, C. R., Peuker, A. C. W. B., & Castro, E. K. de. (2015). Modelo de Autorregulação em Saúde e câncer de mama: uma revisão sistemática de literatura. Saúde E Desenvolvimento Humano, 3(2), 79-105.

https://doi.org/10.18316/2317-8582.15.7

Silva, G. A. e, Souza-, R. B. de, Júnior, Damacena, G. N., & Szwarcwald, C. L. (2017). Detecção precoce do câncer de mama no Brasil: dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde, 2013. Inquéritos Artigo Original Rev Saude Publica, 51(1), 1-9.

https://doi.org/10.1590/s1518-8787.2017051000191

Snape, K., Ruark, E., Tarpey, P., Renwick, A., Turnbull, C., Seal, S., … Rahman, N. (2012). Predisposition gene identification in common cancers by exome sequencing: insights from familial breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 134(1), 429-33.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10549-012-2057-x

Thomson, A. K., Heyworth, J. S., Girschik, J., Slevin, T., Saunders, C., & Fritschi, L. (2014). Beliefs and perceptions about the causes of breast cancer: a case-control study. BMC Research Notes, 7(1), 558.

https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-558

Van Esch, L., Roukema, J. A., Ernst, M. F., Nieuwenhuijzen, G. A. P., & De Vries, J. (2012). Combined anxiety and depressive symptoms before diagnosis of breast cancer. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(3), 895-901.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2011.09.012

Weinman, J., Petrie, K., Moss-Morris, R., & Horne, R. (1996). The illness perception questionnaire: A new method for assessing the cognitive representation of illness. Psychology and Health, 11(3), 431-445.

https://doi.org/10.1080/08870449608400270




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1980-8623.2018.3.27311

Licença Creative Commons
Esta obra está licenciada sob uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.

e-ISSN: 1980-8623 | ISSN-L: 0103-5371


Exceto onde especificado diferentemente, aplicam-se à matéria publicada neste periódico os termos de uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional, que permite o uso irrestrito, a distribuição e a reprodução em qualquer meio desde que a publicação original seja corretamente citada.