Escala de Perdão Conjugal (mofs): evidências de validade de construto no contexto brasileiro

Bruna de Jesus Lopes, Patrícia Nunes da Fonseca, Emerson Diógenes de Medeiros, Aline Carvalho de Almeida, Valdiney Veloso Gouveia

Resumo


O presente estudo objetivou adaptar a Escala de Perdão Conjugal (MOFS) para o contexto brasileiro, reunindo evidências de validade de construto (fatorial e consistência interna). Participaram 205 pessoas casadas da Paraíba (M = 35,8; SD = 10,49; 59% do sexo feminino). Estes responderam a MOFS e perguntas demográficas. Uma Análise Fatorial Confirmatória, com estimador MLR, permitiu comprovar a estrutura originalmente proposta, com os seguintes indicadores de ajuste: CFI = 0,94; TLI = 0,92; RMSEA (IC 95%) = 0,07 (0,04-0,09), apresentando aceitáveis evidências de fidedignidade avaliadas pelo alfa de Cronbach, homogeneidade e confiabilidade composta. Conclui-se que a MOFS apresenta evidências de aceitáveis parâmetros psicométricos, podendo ser usada em estudos futuros sobre o perdão nas relações conjugais.


Palavras-chave


Perdão Conjugal; Escala; Validade; Adaptação.

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


Albuquerque, A. S. & Tróccoli, B. T. (2004). Desenvolvimento de uma escala de bem-estar subjetivo. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 20(2), 153-164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-37722004000200008

Allemand, M., Steiner, M., & Hill, P. L. (2013). Effects of a forgiveness intervention for older adults. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(2), 279-286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0031839

Anastasi, A. & Urbina, S. (2000). Testagem psicológica. Porto Alegre, RS: Artes Médicas.

Barbosa, L. H. G. M. (2015). Explicando a disposição para perdoar: O papel dos valores humanos e das crenças ao mundo justo/injusto. Dissertação de Mestrado. Departamento de Psicologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa-PB.

Barros, J. (2003). Perdão e felicidade: Uma abordagem intercultural. Psicologia, Educação e Cultura, 7(2), 283-311. Braithwaite, S. R., Selby, E. A., & Fincham, F. D. (2011). Forgiveness and relationship satisfaction: mediating mechanisms. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(4), 551-559. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024526

Browne, B. M. & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136-162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Bugay, A. (2014). Measuring the differences in pairs’ marital forgiveness scores: Construct validity and links with relationship satisfaction. Psychological Reports, 114(2), 479-490. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/21.02.PR0.114k18w5

Calo-Blanco, A. (2014). Fairness, freedom, and forgiveness in health care. Social Choice and Welfare, 43(1), 141-151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00355-013-0774-7

Chung, M. S. (2014). Pathways between attachment and marital satisfaction: The mediating roles of rumination, empathy, and forgiveness. Personality and Individual Differences, 70, 246-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.06.032

Clark, L. A. & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309-319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-590.7.3.309

Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13

Downie, R. S. (1965). Forgiveness. Philosophical Quarterly, 15, 128-134. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2218212

Enright, R. D. & Coyle, C. T. (1998). Researching the process model of forgiveness within psychological interventions. In E. L. Worthington (Ed.), Dimensions of forgiveness: Psychological research and theological perspectives (pp. 139-161). Randor, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.

Enright, R. D. & Rique, J. (2001). The Enright Forgiveness Inventory: User’s manual. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden Press.

Enright, R. D., Rique, J., & Coyle, C. T. (2000). Enright forgiveness inventory user’s manual, Redwood City, CA: Mind

Garden.

Enright, R. D. & the Human Development Study Group. (1991). The moral development of forgiveness. In W. Kurtines

& J. Gewirtz (Eds.), Handbook of moral behavior and development (pp. 123-152). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fife, S. T., Weeks, G. R., & Stellberg-Filbert, J. (2013). Facilitating forgiveness in the treatment of infidelity: An interpersonal model. Journal of Family Therapy, 35(4), 343-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6427.2011.00561.x

Fincham, F. D. & Beach, S. R. H. (2002). Forgiveness in marriage: Implications for psychological aggression and constructive communication. Personal Relationships, 9(3), 239-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1475-6811.00016

Fincham, F. D., Beach, S. R., & Davila, J. (2004). Forgiveness and conflict resolution in marriage. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(1), 72-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.18.1.72

Fincham, F. D., Jackson, H., & Beach, S. R. H. (2005). Transgression severity and forgiveness: Different moderators for objective and subjective severity. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(5), 860-875. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2005.24.6.860

Fingerman, K. L. & Charles, S. T. (2010). It takes two to tango why older people have the best relationships. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19(3), 172-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0963721410370297

Fenell, D. (1993). Characteristics of long-term first marriages. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 15(1), 450-460.

Galvão, L. K. S., Camino, C. P. S., Gouveia, V. V., & Formiga, N. S. (2010). Proposta de uma medida de empatia focada em grupos: Validade fatorial e consistência interna. Psico-PUCRS, 41(3), 399-405.

Giacomoni, C. H. & Hutz, C. S. (2008). Escala multidimensional de satisfação da vida para crianças: estudos de construção e validação. Estudos de psicologia (Campinas), 25(1), 23-35.

Gordon, K. C. & Baucom, D. H. (2003). Forgiveness and marriage: Preliminary support for a measure based on a model of recovery from a marital betrayal. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(3), 179-199. http://dx.doi.

org/10.1080/01926180301115

Gordon, K. P., Hughes, F. M, Tomcik, N. D, Dixon, L. J., & Litzinger S. C. (2009). Widening spheres of impact: The role of forgiveness in marital and family functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(1), 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0014354

Gouveia, V. V., Albuquerque, F. J. B., Clemente, M., & Espinosa, P. (2002). Human values and social identities: A study in two collectivist cultures.International Journal of Psychology, 37(6), 333-342. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207590244000179

Gouveia, V. V., Fonsêca, P. N. D., Lins, S. L. B., Lima, A. V. D., & Gouveia, R. S. (2008). Escala de bem-estar afetivo no trabalho (JAWS): evidências de validade fatorial e consistência interna. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 21(3), 464-473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722008000300015

Gouveia, V. V., Freire, L. A., Gouveia, R. S. V., Souza Filho, J. F. Souza, R. V. L., & Monteiro, R. P. (2015). Escala de disposição para perdoar: estrutura, consistência interna e invariância fatorial. Estudos em Psicologia (Campinas), 32 (2), 151-161.

Hair, J. F., Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2009). Análise multivariada de dados (6ª ed.). Porto Alegre, RS: Bookman.

Hargrave, T. D. & Sells, J. N. (1997). The development of a forgiveness scale. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 23(1), 41-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1997.tb00230.x

Harper, Q., Worthington, E. L., Griffin, B. J., Lavelock, C. R., Hook, J. N., Vrana, S. R., & Greer, C. L. (2014). Efficacy of a workbook to promote forgiveness: A randomized controlled trial with university students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(12), 1158-1169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22079

Hill, P. L. & Allemand, M. (2011). Gratitude, forgivingness, and well-being in adulthood: Tests of moderation and incremental prediction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(5), 397-407.

Hoftede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. London: McGraw-Hill.

Hoyt, W. T., Fincham, F. D., McCullough, M. E., Maio, G., & Davila, J. (2005). Responses to interpersonal transgressions in families: forgivingness, forgivability, and relationship-specific effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(3), 375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.89.3.375

Hu, L. T. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analisys: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118

Karaırmak, Ö. & Güloğlu, B. (2014). Forgiveness and PTSD among veterans: The mediating role of anger and negative affect. Psychiatry Research, 219(3), 536-542.

Karremans, J. C., Van Lange, P. A. M., Ouwerkerk, J. W., & Kluwer, E. S. (2003). When forgiving enhances psychological well-being: The role of interpersonal commitment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(5), 1011-1026. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.5.1011

Lance, C. E., Butts, M. M., & Michels, L. C. (2006). The sources of four commonly reported cutoff criteria what did they really say? Organizational Research Methods, 9(2), 202-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1094428105284919

Lander, I. (2012). Towards the incorporation of forgiveness therapy in healing the complex trauma of parental incarceration. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 29(1), 1-19.

Lin, Y., Worthington, E. L., Griffin, B. J., Greer, C. L., Opare-Henaku, A.,Lavelock, C. R., & Muller, H. (2014). Efficacy of reach forgiveness across cultures. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 70(9), 781-793. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.22073

Mahoney, A., Rye, M. S., & Pargament, K. I. (2005). When the sacred is violated: Desecration as a unique challenge to forgiveness. In E. L. Worthington (Ed.). Handbook of forgiveness (pp. 57-72). New York: Brunner-Routledge. Maio, G. R., Thomas, G., Fincham, F. D., & Carnelley, K. B. (2008). Unraveling the role of forgiveness in family relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(2), 307.

Martín, M. D. R. G., González, M. R., & Fuster, G. G. (2011). Forgiveness in marriage: healing or chronicity. A dialog between a philosophical and a psychotherapeutic understanding. Human Studies, 34(4), 431-449.

May, R. W., Sanchez-Gonzalez, M. A., Hawkins, K. A., Batchelor, W. B., & Fincham, F. D. (2014). Effect of anger and trait forgiveness on cardiovascular risk in young adult females. The American Journal of Cardiology, 114(1), 47-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.04.007

McCullough, M., Rachal, K., Sandage, S., Worthington, E., Brown, S., & Hight, T. (1998). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships: II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(6), 1586-603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.75.6.1586

McNulty, J. K. (2011). The dark side of forgiveness: The tendency to forgive predicts continued psychological and physical aggression in marriage. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(6), 770-783. http://dx.doi.Meneses, W. C. & Greenberg, L. S. (2014). Interpersonal forgiveness in emotion-focused couples’ therapy: Relating process to outcome. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 40(1), 49-67.

North, J. (1998). The “ideal” of forgiveness: A philosopher’s exploration. In R.D. Enright & J. North (Eds.). Exploring forgiveness (pp. 15-45). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Nunnally, J. C. (1991). Teoría psicométrica. México, DF: Trilhas.

Orathinkal, J., Vansteenwegen, A., Enright, R. D., & Stroobants, R. (2007). Further validation of the Dutch version of the Enright Forgiveness Inventory. Community Mental Health Journal, 43(2), 109-128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-006-9065-4

Paludo, S. D. S., & Koller, S. H. (2007). Psicologia Positiva: uma nova abordagem para antigas questões. Paidéia, 17(36), 9-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-863X2007000100002

Pasquali, L. (2003). Psicometria: teoria dos testes na psicologia e na educação. Petrópolis: Vozes.

Pasquali, L. (2010). Instrumentação psicológica: Fundamentos e práticas. Porto Alegre: Artmed.

Paleari, F. G., Regalia, C., & Fincham, F. D. (2009). Measuring offence-specific forgiveness in marriage: The Marital Offence-Specific Forgiveness Scale (MOFS). Psychological Assessment, 21(2), 194-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016068

Paleari, F. G. Regalia, C., & Fincham, F.D. (2010). Forgiveness and conflict resolution in close relationships: Within and cross partner effects. Universitas Psychologica, 9(1), 35-56.

Paleari, F. G. Regalia, C., & Fincham, F.D. (2011). Inequity in forgiveness: Implications for personal and relational well-eing. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 30(3), 297-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2011.30.3.297

Peets, K., Hodges, E. V., & Salmivalli, C. (2013). Forgiveness and its determinants depending on the interpersonal context of hurt. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114(1), 131-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.05.009

Pelucchi, S., Paleari, F. G., Regalia, C., & Fincham, F. D. (2013). Self-forgiveness in romantic relationships: It matters to both of us. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(4), 541-549. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032897

Pilati, R. & Laros, J. A. (2007). Modelos de equações estruturais em psicologia: Conceitos e aplicações. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 23, 205-216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-37722007000200011

Pires, J. G., Nunes, M. F. O., & Nunes, C. H. S. D. S. (2015). Instrumentos Baseados em Psicologia Positiva no Brasil: uma Revisão Sistemática. Psico-USF, 20(2), 287-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1413-82712015200209

R Core Team (2015). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org/

Rosseel, Y. (2012). lavaan: An R Package for Structural Equation Modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1-36. URL http://www.jstatsoft.org/v48/i02/.

Scorsolini-Comin, F., & Santos, M. D. (2010). Psicologia positiva e os instrumentos de avaliação no contexto brasileiro. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 23(3), 440-448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722010000300004

Sheldon, K. M. & King, L. (2001). Why positive psychology is necessary. American psychologist, 56(3), 216-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.216

Strelan, P., McKee, I., Calic, D., Cook, L., & Shaw, L. (2013). For whom do we forgive? A functional analysis of forgiveness. Personal Relationships, 20(1), 124-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2012.01400.x

Thompson, L. Y., Snyder, C. R., Hoffman, L., Michael, S. T., Rasmussen, H. N., Billings, L. S., ... & Roberts, D. E. (2005). Dispositional forgiveness of self, others, and situations. Journal of Personality, 73(2), 313-360.

Toussaint, L. L., Owen, A. D., & Cheadle, A. (2012). Forgive to live: Forgiveness, health, and longevity. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35(4), 375-386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-11-9362-4

Younger, J. W., Piferi, R. L., Jobe, R. L., & Lawler, K. A. (2004). Dimensions of forgiveness: The views of laypersons. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 21(6), 837-855. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407504047843

Zwick, W. R. & Velicer, W. F. (1986). Comparison of five rules for determining the number of components to retain. Psychological Bulletin, 99(3), 432-442.

Waal, F. B. M. (2000). Primates- A natural heritage of conflict resolution. Science, 289(5479), 586-590.

Worthington, E. L. (1994). Marriage counseling: A Christian approach. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 13(2), 166-173.

Worthington, E. L. (2003). Forgiving and reconciling: Bridges to wholeness and hope. Downers Grove, IL: Inter Varsity Press.

Worthington, E. L. (Ed.). (2005). Handbook of forgiveness. ew York: Routledge.

Worthington, E. L. & DiBlasio, F. (1990). Promoting mutual forgiveness within the fractured relationship. Psychotherapy: Theory, research, practice, training, 27(2), 219-233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.27.2.219

Worthington, E. L. & Scherer, M. (2004). Forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping strategy that can reduce health risks and promote health resilience: Theory, review, and hypotheses. Psychology & Health, 19(3), 385-405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0887044042000196674

Worthington Jr, E. L. & Wade, N. G. (1999). The psychology of unforgiveness and forgiveness and implications for clinical practice. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 18(4), 385-418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1999.18.4.385




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1980-8623.2016.2.22439

ATENÇÃO

Sistema em manutenção

Migração do sistema OJS para a versão 3.0. Durante este período os usuários:

  • Poderão acessar todo o conteúdo já publicado
  • Não poderão efetivar encaminhamentos do fluxo editorial (submissão, avaliação, publicação)

Previsão: 06/07/2020


e-ISSN: 1980-8623 | ISSN-L: 0103-5371


Exceto onde especificado diferentemente, aplicam-se à matéria publicada neste periódico os termos de uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional, que permite o uso irrestrito, a distribuição e a reprodução em qualquer meio desde que a publicação original seja corretamente citada.