Epidemiological analysis of nifedipine and phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth in users of the Primary Health Care System

Luciara Viana Leão Fonseca, Hercílio Martelli Júnior, Patrícia Furtado Gonçalves, Fillipe Mateus Castro de Carvalho, Ricardo Della Coletta, Paulo Rogério Ferreti Bonan


Purposes: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) in Brazilian users of nifedipine and/or phenytoin and to determine the presence of predisposing/modifying factors.
Methods: Demographic, pharmacological, and periodontal data were obtained from 100 users of the Brazilian Primary Health Care System in Diamantina, Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, who were taking nifedipine and/or phenytoin. Clinical evaluations including gingival overgrowth analysis were carried out by a single calibrated examiner. Bivariate analysis (Chi-square test or Student’s t-test) were used to identify demographic, periodontal and drug-related significant factors associated with gingival overgrowth severity. Multivariate analysis (Poisson regression) was used to assess confounding factors.
Results: The prevalence of DIGO was high (86%), but its severity was predominately mild. The prevalence of DIGO was significantly higher in phenytoin users than in nifedipine users (p=0.01). There was no association between DIGO and demographic, pharmacological or periodontal variables.
Conclusion: The high occurrence of DIGO among users of nifedipine and phenytoin emphasizes the importance of the dentist as part of the public health team to provide the prevention, early diagnostic, and control of this alteration.


Nifedipine; phenytoin; gingival overgrowth; primary health care

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e-ISSN: 1980-6523

ISSN-L: 0102-9460


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