Analysis of preparation time, wear, transportation and centering ability of Flexofile and Prodesign® M manual instruments in curved root canals preparation

Fernanda Inês Zarpelon, Eduardo Nesello Barp, Daniel Galafassi, Tiago André Fontoura de Melo


OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate preparation time, wear, transportation, and centering ability of two manual instruments, namely Flexofile and Prodesign® M, in curved root canal preparation.
METHODS: Forty mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals of the first or second lower molars were used, with standard length, degree, and radius of curvature among all samples. The canals were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=20) according to the preparation instrument analyzed. The preparations were performed by a single operator. The preparation time was controlled, and the values obtained were analyzed. To verify the wear, transportation, and centering ability of the instruments, tomography images were taken before and after instrumentation. The analysis was performed using axial sections previously identified at 2 mm below the tooth apex with the aid of the OnDemand3DTM Dental program. For statistical analysis, Student’s t-test was used, with a significance level of 5%.
RESULTS: The time required to prepare root canals was lesser using Prodesign® M instruments than using Flexofile instruments. Regarding tooth wear, no statistical difference was observed. However, Flexofile instruments had a low centralization capacity in root canal preparation, and there is a trend of transport in the mesial direction of the root canal.
CONCLUSION: Although no statistical difference was observed between the two instruments, the Prodesign® M instruments had a better cantering ability in the preparation. As well as, the time required to prepare the root canals was inferior when Prodesign® M was used.


endodontics; dental instruments; root canal preparation; cone-beam computed tomography.

Full Text:



Schilder H. Cleaning and shaping the root canal. Dent Clin North Am 1974;18(2):269-96.

Leonardi DP, Haragushiku GA, Tomazinho FS, Furuse AY, Volpato L, Baratto-Filho F. Undergraduate students introduction to manual and Rotary root canal instrumentation. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll 2012;53(3):155-9.

Iqbal MK, Maggiore F, Suh B, Edwards KR, Kang J, Kim S. Comparison of apical transportation in four Ni-Ti rotary instrumentation technique. J Endod 2003;29(9):587-91.

Boff LB, Cord CB, Galafassi D, Melo TAF. Análise do desvio apical promovido por três tipos de sistemas endodônticos: manual, rotatório e reciprocante. Dent Press Endod 2015;5(2):40-44.

Pettiette MT, Metzger Z, Phillips C, Trope M. Endodontic complications of root canal therapy performed by dental students with stainless-steel K-files and nickel-titanium hand files. J Endod 1999;25(4):230-34.

Pettiette MT, Delano EO, Trope M. Evaluation of success rate of endodontic treatment performed by students with stainless-steel K-files and nickel-titanium hand files. J Endod 2001;27(2):124-7.

Tu MG, Chen SY, Huang HL, Tsai CC. Endodontic shaping performance using nickel-titamium hand and motor ProTaper systems by novice dental students. J Formos Med Assoc 2008;107(5):381-8.

Capar ID, Ertas H, Arslan H. Comparison of cyclic fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium coronal flaring instruments. J Endod 2014;40(8):1182-5.

Kwak SW, Cheung GS, Ha JH, Kim SK, Lee H, Kim HC. Preference of undergraduate students after first experience on nickel titanium endodonticinstruments. Restor Dent Endod 2016;41(3):176-81.

Schneider SW. A comparison of canal preparations in straight and curved root canals. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1971;32(2):271-5.

Gambill JM, Alder M, del Rio CE. Comparison of nickel-titanium and stainless steel hand-file instrumentation using computed tomography. J Endod 1996;22(7):369-75. 80221-4

Kandaswamy D, Venkateshbabu N, Porkodi I, Pradeep G. Canal-centering ability: An endodontic challenge. J Conserv Dent 2009;12(1):3-9.

McRay B, Cox TC, Cohenca N, Johnson JD, Paranjpe A. A microcomputed tomography-based comparison of the canal transportation and centeringability of ProTaper Universal rotary and WaveOne reciprocating files. Quintessence Int 2014;45(2):101-8.

Coelho MS, Fontana CE, Kato AS, de Martin AS, da Silveira Bueno CE. Effects of Glide Path on the Centering Ability and Preparation Time of Two Reciprocating Instruments. Iran Endod J 2016;11(1):33-7.

Shah DY, Wadekar SI, Dadpe AM, Jadhav GR, Choudhary LJ, Kalra DD. Canal transportation and centering ability of protaper and self-adjusting file system in long oval canals: An ex-vivo cone-beam computed tomography analysis. J Conserv Dent 2017;20(2):105-109.

Shenoi PR, Luniya DA, Badole GP, Makade CS, Kubde R, Khode RT. Comparative evaluation of shaping ability of V-Taper 2H, ProTaper Next, and HyFlex CM in curved canals using cone-beam computed tomography: An in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res 2017;28(2):181-186.

Mamede-Neto I, Borges AH, Guedes OA, de Oliveira D, Pedro FL, Estrela C. Root Canal Transportation and Centering Ability of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments in Mandibular Premolars Assessed Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography. Open Dent J 2017;11:71-78.


Glosson CR, Haller RH, Dove SB, del Rio CE. A comparison of root canal preparations using Ni-Ti hand, Ni-Ti engine-driven, and K-Flex endodontic instruments. J Endod 1995;21(3):146-51.

Short JA, Morgan LA, Baumgartner JC. A comparison of canal centering ability of four instrumentation techniques. J Endod 1997;23(8):503-7.

Elliott LM, Curtis RV, Pitt Ford TR. Cutting pattern of nickel-titanium files using two preparation techniques. Endod Dent Traumatol 1998;14(1):10-5.

Schäfer E, Florek H. Efficiency of rotary nickel-titanium K3 instruments compared with stainless steel hand K-Flexofile. Part 1. Shaping ability in simulated curved canals. Int Endod J 2003;36(3):199-207.

Stavileci M, Hoxha V, Görduysus Ö, Tatar I, Laperre K, Hostens J, Küçükkaya S, Berisha M. Effects of preparation techniques on root canal shaping assessed by micro-computed tomography. Med Sci Monit Basic Res 2013;19:163-8.

Wildey WL, Senia ES, Montgomery S. Another look at root canal instrumentation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1992;74(4):499-507.

Abou-Rass M, Frank AL, Glick DH. The anticurvature filing method to prepare the curved root canal. J Am Dent Assoc 1980;101(5):792-4.

Peters OA. Current challenges and concepts in the preparation of root canal systems: a review. J Endod 2004;30(8):559-67.

Wu MK, Fan B, Wesselink PR: Leakage along apical root fillings in curved root canals. Part I: effects of apical transportation on seal of root. J Endod 2000;26(4):210-16.


e-ISSN: 1980-6523

ISSN-L: 0102-9460


This journal is a member of, and subscribes to the principles of, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)

SJR (SCImago Journal & Country Rank) IMPACT FACTOR:

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Licença Creative Commons

Except where otherwise noted, content of this journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.


Editorial Policies of Brazilian Scientific Journals. Deposit availability: Blue .


Copyright: © 2006-2019 EDIPUCRS