Effect of monolingualism and bilingualism in the anterior cingulate cortex: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in two centers

Brendan Stuart Weekes, Jubin Abutalebi, Henry Ka-Fung Mak, Virginia Borsa, Sergio Miguel Pereira Soares, Pui Wai Chiu, Linda Zhang

Resumo


Reports of an advantage of bilingualism on brain structure in young adult participants are inconsistent. Abutalebi et al. (2012) reported more efficient monitoring of conflict during the Flanker task in young bilinguals compared to young monolingual speakers. The present study compared young adult (mean age = 24) Cantonese-English bilinguals in Hong Kong and young adult monolingual speakers. We expected (a) differences in metabolites in neural tissue to result from bilingual experience, as measured by 1H-MRS at 3T, (b) correlations between metabolic levels and Flanker conflict and interference effects (c) different associations in bilingual and monolingual speakers. We found evidence of metabolic differences in the ACC due to bilingualism, specifically in metabolites Cho, Cr, Glx and NAA. However, we found no significant correlations between metabolic levels and conflict and interference effects and no significant evidence of differential relationships between bilingual and monolingual speakers. Furthermore, we found no evidence of significant differences in the mean size of conflict and interference effects between groups i.e. no bilingual advantage. Lower levels of Cho, Cr, Glx and NAA in bilingual adults compared to monolingual adults suggest that the brains of bilinguals develop greater adaptive control during conflict monitoring because of their extensive bilingual experience.

***Efeito do monolinguismo e do bilinguismo no córtex anterior cingulado: um estudo de espectroscopia de ressonância magnética de prótons em dois centros***

Relatos de uma vantagem do bilinguismo na estrutura cerebral em jovens participantes adultos são inconsistentes. Abutalebi et al. (2012) relataram uma monitorização mais eficiente do conflito durante a tarefa de Flanker em jovens bilíngues comparados com jovens monolíngues. O presente trabalho comparou jovem adultos (idade média = 24) bilíngues em Cantonês-Inglês de Hong Kong e jovens monolíngues adultos. Estávamos a contar com (a) diferenças em metabólitos no tecido neural como resultado de uma experiência bilíngue, medido pelo 3T 1H-MRS, (b) correlações entre os níveis metabólicos, conflito Flanker e efeitos de interferência (c) diferentes associações em falantes monolíngues e bilíngues. Encontramos evidências de diferenças metabólicas no ACC devido ao bilinguismo, especificamente nos metabólitos Cho, Cr, Gly e NAA. Porém, não constatamos correlações significativas entre os níveis metabólicos e efeitos de conflito e interferência e nenhuma evidência significativa de relações diferenciais entre falantes monolíngues e bilíngues. Além disso, não encontramos nenhuma evidência de diferenças significativas no tamanho médio dos efeitos do conflito e interferência entre os grupos, ou seja, nenhuma vantagem bilíngue. Níveis inferiores de Cho, Cr, Gly em adultos bilíngues em comparação com adultos monolíngues sugerem que o cérebro dos bilíngues desenvolve maior controle adaptativo durante a monitorização do conflito por causa da sua extensa experiência bilíngue.


Palavras-chave


H-MRS; Envelhecimento; Multilinguismo; Tarefa Flanker; ACC; Controle cognitivo

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1984-7726.2018.1.30954

e-ISSN: 1984-7726

ISSN-L: 0101-3335

 

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Apoio Institucional – fev./dez. 2012 referente ao Edital MCTI/CNPq/MEC/CAPES Nº. 15/2011.



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