Ideologia

Teun A. van Dijk

Resumo


A maioria dos estudos clássicos sobre ideologia ocorre no contexto da filosofia
ou das ciências sociais, tratando a ideologia como algo negativo – como “falsa consciência”. Neste trabalho, a ideologia é definida em termos mais gerais, como uma forma básica de cognição social compartilhada pelos membros de um grupo, representando identidade de grupo, ações grupais e seus objetivos, normas e valores grupais, relações com outros grupos, e a presença ou ausência de recursos grupais. Tais ideologias representam interesses do grupo e são
desenvolvidas por grupos a fim de organizar e controlar seu discurso e outras práticas sociais, que podem consistir em dominar ou resistir a outros grupos. Ideologias gerais como as do (anti)racismo, sexismo, feminismo, socialismo, neoliberalismo, pacifismo etc. podem controlar atitudes socialmente compartilhadas mais específicas em relação a temas sociais importantes
como imigração, aborto, a pena de morte, casamento entre gays, ou a crise econômica. Tais atitudes baseadas em ideologias podem, por seu turno, controlar os modelos mentais subjetivos dos indivíduos pertencentes ao grupo, isto é, as representações de experiências pessoais. Esses modelos mentais, por fim, controlam o discurso e outras práticas sociais dos membros do grupo.
Tal como acontece com as ideologias subjacentes, as ideologias e os modelos mentais, esse discurso ideológico é tipicamente polarizado entre Nós, o endogrupo, e Eles, o exogrupo. Dessa forma, ele tende a enfatizar as boas coisas do Nosso próprio grupo e as más dos Outros, e a negar ou mitigar os Nossos maus aspectos e os bons aspectos Deles. Isso acontece em todos os níveis multimodais do discurso, tais como tópicos gerais, o léxico, sintaxe, atos de fala, estratégias de boa educação, bem como várias estratégias de semântica, descrições tipicamente negativas e positivas de ações e atores do endogrupo e do exogrupo.

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Ideology

Abstract: Most classical studies of ideology take place in philosophy and the social sciences, and treat ideology as negative – as ‘false consciousness’. In this paper ideology is defined in more general terms, as a basic form of social cognition shared by the members of a group, representing group identity, group actions and their goals, group norms and values, relations to other groups, and presence or absence of group resources. Such ideologies represent group
interests and are developed by groups to organize and control their discourse and other social practices, which may be to dominate or to resist other groups. General ideologies such as those of (anti)racism, sexism, feminism, socialism, neoliberalism, pacifism, etc. may control more specific socially shared attitudes about important social issues such as immigration, abortion, the death penalty, gay marriage or the economic crisis. Such ideologically based attitudes in turn
may control the subjective mental models of individual group members, that is, representations of personal experiences. These mental models finally control the discourse and other social practices of group members. As is the case for underlying ideologies, ideologies and mental models, such ideological discourse is typically polarized between Us, the ingroup, and Them, the outgrpoup. It thus tends to emphasize the good things of Our own group and the bad things
of the Others, and to deny or mitigate Our bad things and Their good things. This happens at all multimodal discourse levels, such as overall topics, the lexicon, syntax, speech acts, politeness strategies as well as many semantic strategies, typically negative and positive descriptions of ingroup and outgroup actions and actors.
Keywords: Ideology; Social cognition; Attitudes; Mental models; Discourse


Palavras-chave


Ideologia; Cognição social; Atitudes; Modelos mentais; Discurso

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1984-7726.2015.s.23139

e-ISSN: 1984-7726

ISSN-L: 0101-3335

 

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