O processamento da anáfora pronominal em crianças com transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e em crianças disléxicas: um estudo através da análise dos movimentos oculares

Angela Inês Klein, André Krügel, Sarah Risse, Günter Esser, Ralf Engbert, Vera Wannmacher Pereira

Resumo


Nesta pesquisa propõe-se verificar o processamento da anáfora pronominal em crianças com transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade e em crianças disléxicas. A pesquisa foi realizada com 75 crianças falantes de Língua Alemã como língua materna, as quais leram dois textos de 80 palavras cada um deles, contendo anáforas pronominais. Os movimentos oculares de todos os participantes foram gravados e, para certificação de uma leitura com atenção, foram realizadas duas atividades que testaram a compreesão em leitura. Através da análise dos movimentos oculares, mais especificamente das fixações, os dados indicam que as crianças com transtornos têm dificuldade em processar a anáfora pronominal, em especial as crianças disléxicas.

 

************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

 

The processing of pronominal anaphora by children that have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or dyslexia: a study through the analysis of eye movements

 

Abstract: The aim of this work was to verify the processing of pronominal anaphora by children that have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or dyslexia. The sample studied consisted of 75 children that speak German, which read two texts of 80 words containing pronominal anaphora. The eye movements of all participants were recorded and, to make sure they were reading with attention, two activities that tested reading comprehension were proposed. Through the analysis of eye movements, specifically the fixations, the data indicate that children with disorders have difficulty to process the pronominal anaphora, especially dyslexic children.

 


Keywords: ADHD; Dyslexia; Reading comprehension; Eye movements; Pronominal anaphora


Palavras-chave


TDAH; Dislexia; Compreensão em leitura; Movimentos oculares; Anáfora pronominal

Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4. ed. Text Revision. Washington, DC, 2000.

BAAYEN, R. H.; DAVIDSON, D. J.; BATES, D. M. Mixed-effects

modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language, v. 59, p. 390-412, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005

BADDELEY, A. D. Working memory and language: An overview. Journal of Communication Disorders, v. 36, n. 3, p. 189-208, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9924(03)00019-4

BARKLEY, R. Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/hiperatividade. São Paulo: ArtMed, 2002.

CARPENTER, P. A.; JUST, M. A. What your eyes do while your mind is reading. In: RAYNER, K. (Ed.). Eye movements in reading: Perceptual and language processes. New York: Academic. 1983.

COULSON, Mrk. Anaphoric reference. In: GREENE, Judith; COULSON, Mark (Ed.). Language understanding: currente issues. Buckinghan: Open University Press, 1995.

DEANS, P.; O’LAUGHLIN, L.; BRUBAKER, B.; GAY, N.; KRUG, D. Use of Eye Movement Tracking in the Differential

Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Reading Disability. Psychology, v. 1, p. 238-246, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/psych.2010.14032

DIGHE, A.; KETTLES, G. Developmental dyspraxia: an overview. In: REID, G. (Ed.). Dimensions of dyslexia.Edinburgh: Moray House Publications. 1996. Vol. 2: Literacy, language and learning. p. 231-263.

EDEN, G. F.; STEIN, J. F.; WOOD, M. H.; WOOD, F. B. Differences in Eye Movements and Reading Problems in Dyslexic and Normal Children. Vision Research, v. 34, n. 10, p. 1345-1358, 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0042-6989(94)90209-7

EHRLICH, K.; RAYNER, K. Pronoun assignment and semantic integration during reading: Eye movements and immediacy of processing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, v. 22, p. 75-87, 1983. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(83)80007-3

FÁVERO, Leonor Lopes. Coesão e coerência textuais. São Paulo: Ática, 1997.

FEIFEL, D.; FARBER, R. H.; CLEMENTZ, B. A.; PERRY, W.; ANLLO-VENTO, L. Inhibitory Deficits in Ocular Motor Behavior in Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Biological Psychiatry, v. 56, n. 5, p. 333-340, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/

j.biopsych.2004.06.019

FIORIN, G. Meaning and Dyslexia: A Study on Pronouns, Aspect, and Quantification. 2010. Disponível em: . Acessado em: 6 dez. 2012.

HULME, C.; MACKENZIE, S. Working memory and severe learning difficulties. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. 1992.

INHOFF, A. W. Two stages of word processing during eye fixations in the reading of prose. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, v. 23, p. 612-624, 1984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(84)90382-7

JEFFRIES, S.; EVERATT, J. Working Memory: Its Role in Dyslexia and Other Specific Learning difficulties. Dyslexia,

v. 10, n. 3, p. 196-214, 2004. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dys.278

JUST, M.A.; CARPENTER, P.A. A theory of reading: from eye fixations to comprehension. Psychological Review, v. 87, p. 329-354,

http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.87.4.329

KLIEGL, R.; ENGBERT, R. Fixation Durations before Word Skipping in Reading, Psychonomic Bulletin e Review, v. 12, n. 1,

p. 132-138, 2005. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03196358

KOWLER, E.; MARTINS, A. J. Eye movements of preschool children. Science, v. 215, p. 997-999, 1985. http://dx.doi.org/

1126/science.7156979

MACEDO, E. C.; YOKOMIZO, J. E.; LUKASOVA, K.; FONTELES, D. S. R. Movimentos sacádicos durante leitura de texto em crianças e universitários bons leitores. Mundo Saúde,

n. 32, v. 2, p. 131-138, 2008.

MAIA, M. Processos bottom-up e top-down no rastreamento ocular de imagens. Veredas – Revista de Estudos Linguísticos, Juiz de Fora, n. 2, p. 08-23, 2008.

MCLOUGHLIN, D.; FITZGIBBON, G. e YOUNG, V. Adult dyslexia: Assessment, counselling and training. London: Whurr Publishers Ltd. 1994.

MCLOUGHLIN, D.; LEATHER, C.; STRINGER, P. The Adult Dyslexic. Interventions and Outcomes. London: Whurr, 2002.

MOSTOFSKY, S. H.; LASKER, A. G.; CUTTING, L. E. Oculomotor Abnormalities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Preliminary Study. Neurology, v. 57, n. 3, p. 423-430, 2001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.57.3.423

MUNOZ, D. P.; ARMSTRONG, I. T.; HAMPTON, K. A.; MOORE, K. D. Altered Control of Visual Fixation and Saccadic Eye Movements in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Journal of Neurophysiology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 503-515, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00192.2003

OAKHILL, J.; YUILL, N. Pronoun Resolution in Skilled and Less-Skilled Comprehenders: Effects of Memory Load and Inferential Complexity. Language and Speech, v. 29, p. 25-37, 1986.

OLSON, R. K.; KLIEGL, R.; DAVIDSON, B. J.; FOLTZ, G. Individual differences and developmental differences in reading disability. In: MACKINNON, G.; WALLER, T. G. (Ed.). Reading research: Advances in theory and practice. New York: Academic Press, 1985. p. 1-64.

PADGET, S. Y.; KNIGHT, D. F.; SAWYER, D. J. Tennessee meets the Challenge of Dyslexia, Annals of Dyslexia, v. 46,

n. 1, p. 51-72, 1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02648171

RAYNER, K.; BERTERA, J. H. Reading without a fovea. Science, v. 206, p. 468, 1979. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.504987

RAYNER, K.; DUFFY, S. A. Lexical complexity and fixation times in reading: Effects of word frequency, verb complexity, and lexical ambiguity. Memory e Cognition, v. 14, p. 191-201, 1986. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03197692

RAYNER, K.; WELL, A. D. Effects of contextual constraint on eye movements in reading: A further examination. Psychonomic Bulletin e Review, v. 3, p. 504-509, 1996.

RAYNER, K. Eye movements and the perceptual span in beginning and skilled readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, v. 41, p. 211-236, 1986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(86)90037-8

RAYNER, K. Eye Movements in Reading and Information Processing: 20 Years of Research, Psychological Bulletin,

v. 124, n. 3, p. 372-422, 1998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.124.3.372

RAYNER, K. Language processes: Unfulfilled promises. Contemporary Psychology, v. 34, p. 384-385, 1989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/027915

RAYNER, K.; INHOFF, A. W.; MORRISON, R.; SLOWIACZEK, M. L.; BERTERA, J. H. Masking of foveal and parafoveal vision during eye fixations in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, v. 7, p. 167-179, 1981. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.7.1.167

RAYNER, K.; POLLATSEK, A.; ASHBY, J.; CLIFTON, C. Psychology of Reading. 2. ed. New York: Psychology Press, 2012.

ROHDE L. A.; MATTOS P. Princípios e práticas em TDAH. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas, 2003.

THALER, V.; URTON, K.; HEINE, A.; HAWELKA, S.; ENGL, V.; JACOBS, A. M. Different behavioral and eye movement patterns of dyslexic readers with and without attentional deficits during single word reading. Neuropsichologie, v. 47, n. 1009, p. 2436-1445, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.04.006

TOPS, W.; CALLENS, C.; VAN CAUWENBERGHE, E.; ADRIAENS, J.; BRYSBAERT, M. Beyond spelling: The writing skills of students with dyslexia in higher education. Ghent University, Belgium. 2011.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1984-7726.2015.1.18406




e-ISSN: 1984-7726

ISSN-L: 0101-3335

 

Este periódico é membro do COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) e adere aos seus princípios. http://www.publicationethics.org

Apoio Institucional – fev./dez. 2012 referente ao Edital MCTI/CNPq/MEC/CAPES Nº. 15/2011.



Licença Creative Commons
Exceto onde especificado diferentemente, a matéria publicada neste periódico é licenciada sob forma de uma licença Creative Commons Atribuição 4.0 Internacional.

 

Políticas Editoriais das Revistas Científicas Brasileiras. Disponibilidade para depósito: Azul.

 

 

Copyright: © 2006-2018 EDIPUCRS