Vygotskian (but only partly Vygotsky’s) understanding of special education

Aaro Toomela

Resumo


In this article general principles of special education are discussed from the Vygotskian perspective. First it is suggested that for understanding of special education in particular and the psyche and its development in general, structuralsystemic epistemology should be applied. To understand special education, psyche and its development should be understood at different levels of analysis. In this paper first life is defined in order to define psyche as a special form of life. Psyche, at the next more specific level of analysis is distinguished into complementary parts, that of individual and its environment. Environment is defined next and theoretically distinguished into four kinds. On this theoretical background, pedagogy and special education are defined. Special education should be based on thorough understanding of the learner at different levels of analysis: according to general stages of development, according to within-stage development, and at the level of the structure of cognition. Two principal targets of the special education and three basic strategies of neuropsychological rehabilitation and special education are distinguished.

 

*** A compreensão Vygotskyana (mas só em parte de Vygotsky) da educação especial ***

Neste artigo, os princípios gerais da educação especial são discutidos a partir da perspectiva Vygotskyana. Em primeiro lugar, sugere-se que, para a compreensão da educação especial em particular e da psique e seu desenvolvimento em geral, a epistemologia estrutural-sistêmica deve ser aplicada. Para entender a educação especial, a psique e seu desenvolvimento devem ser entendidos em diferentes níveis de análise. Neste artigo, a primeira vida é definida com o intuito de definir a psique como uma forma especial de vida. A psique, no nível seguinte e mais específico da análise, é diferenciada em partes complementares, do indivíduo e de seu ambiente. O ambiente é definido em seguida, e distinguido teoricamente em quatro tipos. Nesta base teórica, a pedagogia e a educação especial são definidas. A educação especial deve basear-se na compreensão completa do aprendiz em diferentes níveis de análise: de acordo com estágios gerais de desenvolvimento, de acordo com o desenvolvimento durante o estágio, e no nível da estrutura do conhecimento. Destacam-se dois alvos principais da educação especial e três estratégias básicas de reabilitação neuropsicológica e educação especial.

Palavras-chave: Educação especial; Vygotsky; Luria; Estratégias; Epistemologia estrutural-sistêmica.


Palavras-chave


Special education; Vygotsky; Luria; Strategies; Structural-systemic epistemology

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15448/1981-2582.2018.3.31795

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